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My Long Hunters

Showing posts by: Jeff Roberts

A Dog Named “Love”

My grandpa, Claude Baker, used to love to tell jokes and stories.  He was good at it and got so tickled when he finished.  He used to tell a story about a dog named, “Love”, that went like this.

“A frontiersman was out hunting with his dog, Love.  They were captured by Shawnee.  The frontiersman knew that the Shawnees would kill him, but he also knew that they loved riddles.  When he was brought before their Chief, he told him, “I wager my life that I can give you a riddle that you can’t solve.  If you solve it, you can kill me.  If you can’t, set me free.”  The Shawnee Chief was interested and agreed.  He told him that they would be back at the next dawn to hear this riddle.

The frontiersman had bought himself some time, but he couldn’t think of a riddle.  While worrying over his situation, his faithful dog could tell that he was upset and tried to console him.  This gave him an idea.  Although it broke his heart, he knew what he had to do.

The next morning, the Shawnee returned.  The Chief asked the frontiersman if he had a riddle for him.  He said that he did and began to recite it.

“Love I sit.

Love I stand.

Love I hold in my right hand.

Love I see in yonder tree.

If you can solve this riddle, you can kill me.”

The Shawnee Chief pondered on this riddle and had no idea what it meant.  He told the frontiersman that he would let him live, but he must explain the riddle.  The frontiersman sadly explained that his dog was named, “Love”.  He had killed him and cut him in pieces.  One piece was in his back pocket.  One piece was in his boot.  He held a piece in his hand and had placed another piece up on the limb of a tree.  The Chief agreed that this was a good riddle and let him go.”

Lloyd Robinette, the “Perry Mason of Blackwater”

While growing up, I heard my dad talk about “Lloyd Robinette, the Perry Mason of Blackwater”.  Perhaps this was due to his help in preventing my grandfather from going to the Western front during WWI.  Either way, I decided that I wanted to learn more about this man.

Anyone familiar with Blackwater has heard of the Robinette family.  There were among the earliest settlers in Blackwater.  They have run the Robinette Funeral Home for many generations.  Through the years, they have also run a general store and restaurant.  The 2-story Robinette brick home stood for many years directly across from the funeral home.

Secrist, M. (2013-02-01). Lee County, Virginia: History Revealed Through Biographical and Genealogical Sketches of Its Ancestors (Kindle Locations 1476-1486).  . Kindle Edition.

Robinette, Lloyd M., a lawyer in his native County of Lee and the common-wealth’s attorney, was one of the distinguished alumni of Roanoke College and the University of Virginia. He represents several of the old Colonial families of Virginia, and is eligible to membership in the Sons of the American Revolution. Mr. Robinette was born at Blackwater in Lee County, Virginia, March 26, 1880. The Robinette family is of French Huguenot ancestry. They left France during the era of Protestant persecution, first going to Bavaria, where the Huguenots fared little better, and then emigrated to Wales and then to Chester. When William Penn fitted out his expedition to America they accompanied him to Penn’s Woods, and from Pennsylvania came to Virginia. Among the fore-fathers of Lloyd M. Robinette were three successive Samuel Robinettes. Samuel III, born in Richmond, Virginia, in 1760, was the pioneer of the family in Lee County, Virginia, where he died in 1850. He married Anne Osborne, who was born in Grayson County, Virginia, in 1765, and died in Lee County in 1863. Their son, Isaac H. Robinette, was the grandfather of the Jonesville attorney. Isaac H. Robinette was born in Grayson County, Virginia, in 1802, and married Martha Stapleton, who was born in Lee County in 1804. Her father, a great-grandfather of Lloyd M. Robinette, was William Stapleton, a soldier of the Revolutionary War. Samuel R. Robinette, son of Isaac H. and Martha (Stapleton) Robinette, was born July 9, 1839, and was reared on a farm in Lee County. When the War Between the States broke out he espoused the cause of the South, entering Company B of the Twenty-fifth Virginia Cavalry. He was in service with this command until June, 1864, when he was captured at the battle of Piedmont. For nine months he suffered great privations and hardships as a prisoner at Camp Morton, Indiana. In June, 1870, in Hancock County, Tennessee, he married Narcissa Lindsay, who died October 13, 1893. She was born June 5, 1850, in Cass County, Illinois, daughter of Alexander Jennings and Elizabeth (Baldwin) Lindsay. Alexander J. Lindsay was born in Meadville, Pennsylvania, May 27, 1818, the son of Jesse and Catherine Lindsay, and died in Cass County, Illinois, in 1850. Elizabeth Baldwin, mother of Narcissa Lindsay, was born in Hawkins County, Tennessee, November 6, 1814, and was married December 25, 1842. She was a daughter of John and Elizabeth (Newberry) Baldwin, of Bedford County, Virginia. John Baldwin was a son of James Baldwin, born in Killarney, Ireland, and his wife, Elizabeth Ferrell, born in Dublin, Ireland. James Baldwin was another Revolutionary ancestor of the county attorney, fighting for American independence for seven years, and returned to his home on a short furlough only once during the entire period. Samuel R. Robinette and wife were the parents of eight children: Mary E., born April 6, 1872; Charles J., born June 1, 1875; Sarah C., born October 20, 1877; Lloyd M., born March 26, 1880; Lewis E., born October 25, 1882; Ida M., born May 5, 1885; Lillie B., born December 27, 1887; and Amos O., born April 9, 1891. Five of these children resided in Lee County.

Lloyd M. Robinette grew up in a rural community, attended the local schools until the age of eighteen, and became a teacher as a stepping stone to a higher education and a professional career. He taught in the public schools of Lee County for a period of five years. For three years he was a student in the Jonesville Academy, and in 1904 he entered Roanoke College, where he was graduated with the second honors of his class and the Bachelor of Arts degree in June, 1906. After a year of travel he entered the law department of the University of Virginia in September, 1907, and received the Bachelor of Laws degree in June, 1909. Following his graduation he was elected an instructor in the law department of the university, and remained there until June, 1911, when he resigned to engage in private practice.

While a student at Roanoke, Mr. Robinette was editor-in-chief of the Roanoke Collegian, a monthly literary magazine, was twice president of the Demosthenian Literary Society and assistant editor-in-chief of Roentgen Rays. In the university he was associate editor of College Topics, associate editor of the Alumni Bulletin, president of the Jefferson Literary Society, member of the Jefferson Chapter of the Phi Alpha Delta law fraternity, and since its formation was a member and president of the Virginia Chapter of the honorary legal fraternity Order of Coif. He served as president of the general Alumni Association of Roanoke College from 1916 to 1922, and as chairman of the Executive Committee was in active charge of the Alumni Organization in raising the half million dollar endowment for Roanoke College in 1920. Mr. Robinette was admitted to the bar in June, 1909. Since September, 1911, his industry and recognized abilities brought him unusual success as a practicing attorney at Jonesville. Besides his office as commonwealth’s attorney he was commissioner of accounts for Lee County and also inheritance commissioner. During the World War he was chairman of the Pledge Card Campaign, chairman of the Lee County Chapter of the Red Cross, chairman of the War Savings Committee for Lee County, chairman of the Legal Advisory Board for the county and identified with all other phases of the patriotic program in his home county. He was a democrat and a member of the Masonic Order. [History of Virginia, Vol. VI, 1924]

He was a member of the Virginia Senate from 1931-1951. normal_013~2



Who Was Dr. Andrew Jackson Osborne?

82058132_135519818945State Route 604 begins at State Route 421 in Duffield, Virginia, and runs through Pattonsville, Blackwater and Jonesville on its way to the Tennessee state line.  On the Virginia side, it is named “Doctor Andrew Jackson Osborne Highway”.  Those familiar with the area will know that there are many Osbornes from there.  So why was this particular Osborne’s name given to the highway?

Dr. Andrew Jackson Osborne was born in Blackwater, Virginia, on February 14, 1869.  He was the son of James Knox Polk Osborne and Elizabeth Robinette (another famous local name) Osborne.  He had one sibling, Enoch Osborne born in 1877.  He had two spouses, Polly Fisher Osborne, born in 1870, and Ollie J. Stacy Osborne, born in 1879.  Through his two wives, he had 15 children.  You can find their names here:  http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=82058132

Although his families were impressive, that isn’t what brought this man his fame. My father told me that he was one of the earliest DO’s, Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine.  This form of medical care was founded in 1874 by Andrew Taylor Still, MD, who decided while serving as a physician during the Civil War that the “orthodox” approaches to medical care weren’t sufficient and were sometimes harmful.  Osteopathy takes a “whole body” or “holistic” approach and focused on prevention more than treatment.  The first school of osteopathic medicine was opened in Kirksville, MO, in 1892.  This would have made AJ Osborne a pioneer in the new field.  For a history of osteopathic medicine, go here:  http://www.aacom.org/become-a-doctor/about-om/history

The following information is from the Moore Family of Virginia and Kentucky Genealogy site at http://www.genealogy.com/ftm/h/o/w/Peggy-C-Howell/WEBSITE-0001/UHP-0554.html

Andrew Jackson (Doc) Osborne (son of James Knox Polk Osborne and Elizabeth Robinette)451 was born February 14, 1869 in Blackwater, Lee County, Virginia, U.S.A.451, and died April 08, 1937 in Blackwater, Lee County, Virginia, U.S.A.451.He married Polly Fisher.  Includes NotesNotes for Andrew Jackson (Doc) Osborne: [osborne2[2].FTW] He was a Blackwater, VA physician for more than 40 years. He trained under Dr. William ROBINETTE and made house calls on his horse ‘Old Joe’. He had a good treatment record for the flu epidemic of 1917-18. He was a Mason, Odd Fellow, and member of the Blackwater Lick (Big Door) Church. He served three months in the Atlanta penitentiary for prescribing morphine to a Mr. HOBBS; he was turned in by Mr. ELY. He was born on the Caleb Hurd Farm.

Dr. William Robinette (on the left) and Dr. AJ Osborne (on the right)

Dr. William Robinette (on the left) and Dr. AJ Osborne (on the right)

Here is some more information from Janet Gover’s Blog-Stories within stories… within stories at http://janetgover.com/?p=4021

People would walk for miles to visit his (Dr. AJ Osborne’s) medicine house and he would also travel on horseback to see patients long distances away. It was said he often slept on that horse’s back. When he reached the medicine house, the horse would nudge the door to make enough noise to wake the doc.

He never charged his patients – but those who could pay something, did.

He was particularly distressed by the infant mortality rates in the mountains – and tragically ten of his own children died at birth or in early infancy.

Doc Osborne ministered to the people all his life and was poor all his life. When he died in April 1937 the Rev Frank Phipps had to find a suit for him to be buried in.

Janet found the information on Dr. AJ Osborne at the Museum of Appalachia in Clinton, Tennessee, where Dr. Andy’s entire office is on display.  Here is their website:  http://museumofappalachia.org

But the best website containing Dr. AJ Osborne’s story can be found at The Country Doctor and Natural Medicine Newsletter at http://www.jmcnaturalmedicine.com/dr-amjad-library-book-1.html.  There’s simply too much information to put on my page.  But I highly recommend reading it.  He was quite a man.

WWI-How Grandpa Roberts was Saved From Going to Europe

With it being 100 years since the beginning of World War I, I’m reminded of the story my Dad told me about how Grandpa Roberts was saved at the last minute from having to go to Europe. The United States declared war on Germany on April 6, 1917.  It enacted the Selective Service Act on May 18, 1917.  This required all men ages 21 to 30 to register for military service.  It also allowed the US to draft 2.8 million men for the war.  My grandfather was one of those men.  Below is his registration card.

Fred Roberts Registration

Grandpa was drafted and sent to Fort Meade, Maryland for basic training.  While there, Grandma Roberts had a dream that if he went to Europe, he would not return.  Grandpa also wrote home that he believed that if he went overseas, he would die there.  Grandma went to Great Grandpa Wallen and begged him to do something.  They went to their congressman and asked if he could do something.  This was humbling for them since they were staunch republicans and the congressman was a democrat.

For some reason, Grandpa Roberts replied “No” on his registration card when asked if there was anyone dependent on him for their livelihood.  Since this was untrue, the congressman was able to get Grandpa exempted on a hardship basis.  He was pulled out of line while waiting to board the ship that would have taken him to Europe and likely his death.  If that had happened, my Father would have never been born.

american troops boarding a ship tofrance USS President Lincoln

The Battle of Cumberland Gap-1863

The area of the Cumberland Gap was very strategic during the Civil War.  It traded hands a few times in various engagements.  The 64th Mounted Virginia Infantry, of which Jesse Roberts was a member, fought in the last battle.  It was a disaster for the Confederate forces, who surrendered without a fight.  The Confederate prisoners were taken to  Camp Douglas in Chicago.  They probably regretted their decision then.  I can find no prisoner of war record for Jesse.  So he was probably one of the 100-300 Confederates who escaped through the Union lines.  Or he may have joined after this battle.


The September 7–9, 1863 fall of the Cumberland Gap was a victory for Union forces under the command of Ambrose Burnside during his campaign for Knoxville. The bloodless engagement cost the Confederates 2,300 men and control of the Cumberland Gap.


Major General Ambrose Burnside, commander of the Department and Army of the Ohio, began to advance against Knoxville, Tennessee. Burnside left Cincinnati, Ohio in mid-August 1863. The direct route ran through the Confederate-held Cumberland Gap. Burnside had been delayed in earlier attempts to move out against Knoxville and thus chose not to spend the time to force a passage of the gap. Instead he detached one brigade under Colonel John F. DeCourcy to pose a threat to Brigadier General John W. Frazer‘s 2,300 man garrison, while the rest of the army bypassed to the south over 40 miles in rugged mountainous terrain.[2] DeCourcy had previously led a brigade in the 1862 operations against the Cumberland Gap under George W. Morgan.

Despite this, Burnside made a rapid advance on Knoxville. Many of the Confederates in eastern Tennessee had been withdrawn for the upcoming Battle of Chickamauga, leaving only two brigades under General Sam Jones (including Frazer’s). Having successfully occupied Knoxville on September 2, Burnside could now return his attention to the Cumberland Gap.[2]


Frazer and his 2,300-man garrison had little combat experience, yet they had the benefit of a strong natural defense. Frazer’s men supplemented this by digging their own trenches. General Simon B. Buckner had given Frazer orders to hold the gap at all cost, yet when Buckner and all his troops were redeployed, no contingency had been formulated for retreat and therefore Frazer continued following his orders from Buckner to hold the gap. DeCourcy’s brigade threatened the Confederates from the north, but his brigade alone was not enough to force Frazer out of the gap. Burnside dispatched a second brigade under Brigadier General James M. Shackelford. Shackelford approached from the south and, on September 7, asked for Frazer’s surrender. There were still not enough Union troops to convince Frazer to surrender. An ineffectual exchange of artillery followed but that evening Union soldier captured Gap Springs, the Confederate water supply.[3] On September 8 Burnside personally left Knoxville with a brigade under Colonel Samuel A. Gilbertand marched 60 miles in just over a day.[4] Meanwhile both DeCourcy and Shackelford sent messages demanding surrender. Attempting to buy time, Frazer met with the two Union commanders separately, but rejected surrender demands from both.

Around 10:00 a.m. on September 9, Burnside sent a message to Frazer stating he now had a large enough force to carry the gap by storm. The large Union force, little combat experience and low morale (after news of Vicksburg andGettysburg) all factored into Frazer’s decision to surrender. Around 3:00 p.m. Frazer agreed to an unconditional surrender of all the Confederates guarding the Cumberland Gap.[5] Between 100-300 men managed to escape through DeCourcy’s lines after the surrender had taken place, but the rest of the soldiers, arms, 14 pieces of artillery and the strategic location were now in Union control. This was the last major operation against the Cumberland Gap and it would remain in Union hands for the rest of the war.[3]

Opposing Forces


Department of the Ohio – Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside


  • 5th Brigade, Army of Tennessee – Brig. Gen. John W. Frazer
    • 62nd North Carolina Infantry Regiment – Major B. G. McDowell
    • 64th North Carolina Infantry Regiment – Lieutenant Colonel Garrett
    • 55th Georgia Infantry Regiment – Major Printup
    • 64th Virginia Infantry Regiment – Colonel Slemp
    • 1st Tennessee Cavalry Regiment – Colonel Carter
    • 29th North Carolina Infantry Regiment Company E.

The Battle of Jonesville-1864

After discovering that my great, great, great grandfather, Jesse Roberts, was a Private in the 64th Mounted Infantry of Virginia, I wanted to find out what battles they fought.  Apparently, 130 men of the 64th fought in the battle of Jonesville and were key to a Confederate victory.

Jonesville is the county seat of Lee County and is strategically located near the Cumberland Gap.

Here is an interesting description of the battle.


Battle of Jonesville

(The Frozen Fight)

January 3, 1864


David Chaltas and Richard Brown


The year of 1864 was in its infancy being only three days old. A blanket of wintry weather covered the area with a frozen glaze and the hearts of men were frozen by the war as well as the cold. War at any time is a terribly hard experience but to fight in the extremely freezing weather during January of 1864 is inconceivable. During the Civil War there were no special winter clothing such as Gore-Tex lined coats or boots. Neither were there any waterproof gloves or thermal knit underwear. Both armies were usually scantily clothed with the boys in blue slightly better off than their brothers in gray. Rubber coated blankets were a luxury very few soldiers had and good boots even less available. Horror stories of soldiers marching without shoes or socks were common among the whisperers of tales. Winter was dreaded and as the temperature fell below the 0 mark to 6 below all became chilled to the bone. With all that suffering came the added worry that someone was trying to kill you. Unfortunately for some of the troops in the Powell River Valley, a fierce frozen fight was in store for them. The battle would be fought on one of the coldest January mornings of the war. On January 3, 1864, a battle in Jonesville, Virginia would be remembered by the men who fought there as The Frozen Fight.

Jonesville is a small town located in the Powell River Valley in Lee County, Virginia. The valley is known for its fertile and productive fields. Unfortunately for the farmers and citizens in this area, both union and confederate armies were well aware of that fact. Both would need to forage the area to maintain the existence of their men, as supplies were hard to transport into the area. The area was totally enclosed on the north and south by mountain ranges. Jonesville was uniquely located. It was less than four miles south of Harlan County, Kentucky and six miles north of Hancock County, Tennessee. The Union stronghold of Cumberland Gap and Tazewell, Tennessee was not very far to the west. The Confederate stronghold of Rogersville, Tennessee was just to the south of the sprawling little town. The roads to all of these areas connected at Jonesville, such as spokes of a wheel with the town being the hub. This fielder has suggested that there exists a similarity to Gettysburg in terms of both being the hub of action and that destiny would meet both parties when both parties found each other at that location.

The union commander of the region was Colonel W.C. Lemert who spent most of his time traveling between Cumberland Gap and Tazewell. His subordinate was Major Charles H. Beeres, a West Pointer. Major Beeres was considered by many citizens of the area to be a supporter of total warfare, much like General Sherman. His troops burnt the courthouse in Jonesville for no apparent reason. He later burnt the Franklin Academy under the excuse that it was being used as a confederate hospital. Most of the citizens of the Powell River Valley area despised and feared him. Since most confederate soldiers in this area had family and friends here, they harbored ill feelings toward him as well. The confederates hoped for a chance to catch him on one of his foraging parties and to defeat him, exacting some revenge. They would soon get their wish as Colonel Lemert ordered Major Beeres to take the 16th Illinois Cavalry and the 22ndOhio Battery, a force of approximately four hundred-fifty men and attack the small confederate force camped near Jonesville.

General William ” Grumble” Jones, CSA, was the commanding officer of the Department of southwest Virginia and east Tennessee. He was a very capable and daring leader, believing in leading from the front. This courage and daring would later cost him dearly as he would lay down his life on the altar of freedom for the cause that he was devoted. On June 5, 1864, he would be killed while leading his men at the Battle of Piedmont in the Shenandoah Valley. General Jones was headquartered in December of 1863 in Rogersville, Tennessee. General Jones received a courier on December 31 from Lieutenant Colonel Auburn Pridemore of the 64th Virginia Mounted Infantry. The message that was delivered reported that Lieutenant Colonel Pridemore had been informed by reliable sources that Major Beeres had left Tazewell and was moving on Jonesville. General Jones as much as anyone wanted to rid the country of Major Beeres and his men, considering them scourges of the earth. He immediately assembled a force of men and left Rogersville on the bitterly cold morning of December 31, 1863. His thrown together force included the 8th, 21st, 27th and 37thVirginia Battalions. The 64th and the 10th Kentucky Mounted Rifles (later in the spring of 1865 they were reorganized and designated as the 13th Kentucky Cavalry) were camped just outside of Jonesville at Yocum’s Station. A trap was in the making.

The trip from Rogersville to Jonesville was a bitterly cold one for the gray-clad cavaliers, artillery, and infantry that marched with General Jones, with some reports of temperatures of minus six degrees. At least one soldier would freeze to death on this cold ride, with some reports of as many as four men freezing to death. The Yankee soldiers would suffer on their trip from Tazewell to Jonesville as well, though no men from their unit were reported to have frozen to death. The deaths of the Rebel soldiers may have been contributed to them having to ford the Powell River, enhancing the killing power of the deadly cold. Jones would spend the night of December 31 at Bean’s Station, Tennessee and by the second of January were in the Powell River Valley, west of Jonesville. He noted in his official reports that at every stop along the way, fires would be started and that some men could not be started when the march would restart. Major Beeres arrived and set up camp at Jonesville on approximately the same day that Pridemore and his men had melted into the cold woods on the east side of the town, not yet engaging the Yankees. All Rebel soldiers in the area that were home on leave or convalescing were called on to help entrap the union forces. The call that went out did not have to be repeated twice, Beeres and his men were hated all up and down the valley. Pridemore had approximately two hundred-thirty men (130 men of the 64th and 100 men of the 10th Kentucky) to confront Beeres and his men.

Major Beeres knew that a small force of confederates were in his front on the east side of Jonesville but he did not know that General Jones was moving up on his flanks with a considerable force of men. He set his artillery (the 22nd Ohio Battery) on the high hill west of town facing Pridemore. On the bitterly cold morning of January 3, 1864, the 64th charged into Jonesville, pushing the union pickets back. Pridemore had Major James B. Richmond take command of a portion of the 64th on the right. He then ordered Captain David J. Caudill to form his men of the 10th on the left. As the attack began, Pridemore saw that the right flank could be over run. He then brought the men of the 64th that were in reserve over to the right, moving Major Richmond and his men to along side Captain Caudill and his men of the 10th. Amazingly the Rebel soldiers kept up a steady fire. Normal loading of an Enfield rifle under combat conditions can be an un-nerving experience but one cannot imagine trying to load and fire a muzzle-loading gun with frozen hands. Many a cartridge and primer cap probably hit the ground.

Pridemore saw that the Yankee line was wavering, and came to the realization that the time was right to charge the enemy. With a rebel yell that permeated the mountains and valleys, the entire length of the 64th and the 10th surged forward, valiantly charging into the shot and canister of the Yankee artillery. Amazingly they overtook the artillery and captured it. The Rebel soldiers were probably glad to charge, as the running would warm their cold bodies. At this point of the battle, Major Beeres managed to stop his retreating troops whom outnumbered the confederates in their front and counterattacked. They were successful and pushed the Rebels back, recapturing the cannons. Again the cannons were turned on the Rebel forces in the front of the Yankee lines. At this time General Jones and his men arrived on the flank of the Yankee soldiers and pressed the union forces from their entrenchments. Major Beeres knew he was in a trap and tried to flee north on the Harlan Road towards Cranks Gap that lead into Kentucky. Pridemore already knew that this was the only escape route for the Yankees and immediately moved the 64th and the 10th to the north and cut them off. Major Beeres knew that further resistance would be futile, and raised a white flag. Adjutant J.A.G. Hyatt of the 64th approached Major Beeres to accept his surrender, but in his arrogant style, the Major refused to surrender to someone of less rank that his own. Before hostilities could begin again, Lieutenant Colonel Pridemore arrived upon the scene and accepted the surrender of Major Beeres and his men. Lieutenant Colonel Pridemore would use the Major’s sword and pistol for the remainder of the war. General Jones and his men arrived shortly on the scene. Though not having to fight in the battle as much as the 64th and the 10th, they were instrumental in capturing almost all of Major Beeres’ force. The ride they had conducted would be relived whenever the story of the frozen fight was told.

The casualties of this frozen fight were high for the Union Army, approximately 350 captured including 48 wounded and 12 killed in action. The Confederate Army had four killed and 12 wounded soldiers. The cold but exuberant rebel soldiers captured almost 400 guns and other needed supplies. Also an additional three pieces of artillery and 27 support wagons were now in the Confederate arsenal. Major Beeres and his men were sent to prisoner of war camps, with most of them being sent to Andersonville Prison. Lieutenant Colonel Pridemore was promoted to Colonel for his successful role in ridding the valley of the threat of total warfare. He was also accredited with the following verse:

“No area ever had truer sons,

No cause, nobler champions,

No people, bolder defenders-

Than the boys in Gray from Lee.”

Lieutenant Colonel Pridemore would state in his official report that the 64th and the 10th had fought gallantly. The camaraderie and friendship between these two units would continue throughout the war. They would fight alongside each other throughout the East Tennessee campaign and in battles in Virginia including the Battle of Saltville. Tragically, General William “Grumble” Jones would not survive the war. The people of the Powell River Valley always honored the brave general with reverence when they spoke of him. They realized what he and his men had gone through to rid them of the constant threat of total warfare. Though the war would continue through another cold winter, the men who participated in this battle would forever more remember it as “The Frozen Fight”. Mother Nature had increased the hardships of war, possibly to teach both warring sides the warmer side of peace.


Adjutant Reports, Confederate States of America

Adjutant Reports, United States of America

Battle of Jonesville; Civil War Days Publication; May 31-June 2, 2002; pages 3-7

Battle of Jonesville; Richmond Sentinel; January 16, 1864

Report of Brigadier General William E. Jones, C.S. Army Commanding Cavalry Brigade; Headquarters Jones’ Cavalry Brigade; Jonesville, Virginia; January 7, 1864

Report of Brigadier General William E. Jones, C.S. Army Headquarters Jones’ Cavalry; Morgan’s Farm; Lee County, Virginia; March 14, 1864

64th Virginia Infantry Regimental History; Weaver Jeffery; H.E. Howard Publisher; Copyright 1992;


64th Virginia Mounted Infantry Regiment

Jesse Roberts, my great, great, great-grandfather, served in this regiment.  Here is it’s description from Wikipedia.org:

The 64th Virginia Mounted Infantry Regiment, consisting of troops raised in LeeScottWise and Buchanan counties in Virginia for service in the Confederate States Armyduring the American Civil War, served as an infantry regiment, a cavalry regiment, and a mounted infantry (dragoon) unit. It fought mostly in western Virginia and Tennessee.

The 64th Regiment Virginia Mounted Infantry was organized in December 1862 in Abingdon, by consolidating the 21st and 29th Virginia Infantry Battalions. Prior to September 1, 1863, it was known as the 64th Virginia Infantry, and after that date it was also called the 64th Virginia Cavalry.

On September 9, a large part of this unit was captured at Cumberland Gap by Union General Ambrose Burnside. Which led to many of the captured men being sent toLouisville,Kentucky then later to Camp Douglas (Chicago). Later it served in Williams’, Giltner’s, and W.E. Jones’ Brigade and confronted the Federals in various conflicts in East Tennessee, Western Virginia, and North Carolina.

During April 1864, it totaled 268 effectives, but in April 1865, less than 50 disbanded.

The field officers were Colonels Auburn L. Pridemore, a future Congressman, and Campbell Slemp, future Congressman Lieutenant Colonel James B. Richmond, and Major Harvey Gray.

Here is a link to a page that shows that Jesse was a Private in this regiment:  http://civil-war-soldiers.findthedata.org/l/4730730/Jesse-Roberts

Here is the roster.  You’ll see many familiar Lee County surnames:

Surnames: A-B

Surnames: C-E

Surnames: F-I

Surnames: J-L

Surnames: M-O

Surnames: P-S

Surnames: T-V

Surnames: W-Z

James Roberts of Snow Creek

I found this excerpt from “Selected Roberts Papers: Seven Generations of a Southern Lineage” by Charles Stewart Roberts, M.D.,  and was very excited by it.  You can read it here.



Why did the Roberts move from Scotland to England?

If I have tracked my family back correctly, they came from the Deal, Kent, area of England to the United States.  But, reportedly they were originally from Scotland.  I have been trying to find the reason why they moved.  I found the following post from a John Roberts who is originally from Scotland but migrated to the Kent area in recent years.  It’s at http://www.clansandnames.org/forum/read.php?1,103.

“The Roberts family originated in the highlands of Scotland. During the Reign of Malcolm a member of the Roberts family caused offence to a member of Malcolm’s family which resulted in that part of the Roberts family leaving Scotland and settling in Kent, Southern England. They flourished there for several years around the existing town of Robertsbridge.  The Roberts family split 3 ways. One part stayed in the Kent area, a second part moved to East Anglia and the 3rd part moved to Wales. When the problem with King Malcolm occurred, half the family remained in Scotland. So it becomes difficult to determine your true lineage. At the time of Culloden, many Scots went to America and Canada, while others went to the far East. An example of the Roberts in East Anglia is the former Prime Minister of the UK, Margaret Thatcher, whose maiden name was Roberts. I am Scottish, born in Glasgow, moved to London when 13, married with 3 children who now live in Kent.  So I took Scottish Roberts to live alongside their ancient family.”

John Roberts January 12, 2013 06:33AM

1868 Property Dispute-Jesse G & Ursley (Bledsoe) Roberts vs. Winder Bledsoe

Here is a link to a site that has a record for a property dispute in 1868 between Jesse G and Ursley (Bledsoe) Roberts and her brother Winder Bledsoe after their Father had died.


Jesse and Ursley were my great, great grandparents.

Where did Lee County get its name?

When one hears the name “Lee”, typically Robert E. Lee comes to mind.  However, it is named after Robert E. Lee’s father, “Light Horse Harry” Lee.

Light Horse Harry’s real name was Henry Lee III.  Here is a synopsis of his military career from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Lee_III:

Lee graduated from the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) in 1773, and began pursuing a legal career. With the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, he became a captain in a Virginia dragoon detachment, which was attached to the 1st Continental Light Dragoons. In 1778, Lee was promoted to major and given the command of a mixed corps of cavalry and infantry known as Lee’s Legion, with which he won a great reputation as a leader of light troops.

It was during his time as commander of the Legion that Lee earned the sobriquet of “Light-Horse Harry” for his horsemanship. On September 22, 1779 the Continental Congress voted to present Lee with a gold medal—a reward given to no other officer below a general’s rank—for the Legion’s actions during the Battle of Paulus Hook in New Jersey, on August 19 of that year.[4][5]

Lee was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and was assigned with his Legion to the southern theater of war. Lee’s Legion raided the British outpost of Georgetown, South Carolina with General Francis Marion in January 1781 and helped screen the American army in their Race to the Dan River the following month. Lee united with General Francis Marion the Swamp Fox and General Andrew Pickens in the spring of 1781 to capture numerous British outposts in South Carolina and Georgia including Fort Watson, Fort Motte, Fort Granby, Fort Galphin, Fort Grierson, and Fort Cornwallis, Augusta, Georgia. They conducted a campaign of terror and intimidation against Loyalists in the region, highlighted in Pyle’s Massacre. Lee and his legion also served at the Battle of Guilford Court House, the Siege of Ninety-Six, and the Battle of Eutaw Springs. He was present at Cornwallis‘s surrender at Yorktown, but left the Army shortly after claiming fatigue and disappointment with his treatment from fellow officers. During the infamous Whiskey Rebellion, Lee commanded the 13,000 militiamen sent to quash the rebels.

Henry was the Governor of Virginia in 1793 when Lee County was formed from Russell County.  It was named in his honor.


Why is Blackwater called “Blackwater”?

Although I could not find a historical reference for this, it’s most likely that Blackwater takes its name from the Blackwater Creek that runs through it and then Southwest into Hancock County, Tennessee.  You can see a map of it here:  http://www.placekeeper.com/Virginia/Map/Blackwater_Creek-1463534.html.  This very creek runs through my parents’ property.

Any time that a river or stream contained tannins from trees and soil that make it dark, it is referred to as “blackwater”.  So, this is the likely reason for the name.  It’s also interesting to note that there is a Blackwater River in Southeast Virginia and a Blackwater Creek in Lynchburg, Virginia.  There is also a Blackwater River in Ireland.  It’s also possible that the name was brought here by the Scots-Irish settlers.

When my Uncle Paul Baker bought land in Milton, Florida, and convinced his parents to move there, they named the canal that went through the area the Blackwater Canal.  They also named their road Blackwater Drive.  These names were in honor of their former home place.  Ironically, there is also a Blackwater River that runs near there.


The Blackwater Saltworks

One of the reasons that my ancestors settled in Blackwater, Virginia, was due to the salt lick located near where the Blackwater Post Office is/was located today.  This attracted abundant game and provided a source for salt to preserve their meat.

I was searching for other references to it and was pleased to see that Wikipeida had linked to my web site as a source of information for the Blackwater salt lick.  Please see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_lick.

Blackwater Lick Primitive Baptist Church, also known as “Big Door”, was named after the nearby salt lick when it was organized on September 27, 1847.  This church is currently located on Route 604 directly across the street from the old Blackwater School. Here is a helpful website that gives some details:  http://www.associationofprimitivebaptists.org/2002proceedings.html.

Here is another reference from the family line for Doswell Rogers at http://www.crossedbrushstudio.com/windowsintoourpast/Vol7/doswellrogers.htm.

Joseph Rogers  had an agreement with old William Roberts  whereby he acquired an equitable interest to 1/8th to four tracts of land lying on Blackwater and including in one tract the same interest to the Blackwater saltworks.  The legal Title to the last was still in William Roberts name at the time of Joseph Rogers death and the widow, Susannah Rogers  who was then m. to James Walling  was entitled to one third of one eight of the said land as her dower, Since she wanted to sell these lands the title had to be cleared.

In 1819 and in 1821 Susannah ( Rogers ) Wallen  was trying to clear the Title to land in which she had interest as her Dower Right.  The case eventually settles out of court for her Dower interest in the land.  From what I have here, it appears that William Roberts  (brother-in-law of Joseph Rogers ) sold her Dower and she then took it to court.  A settlement was reached while the children were still under age.

Deed Book 5 – pages 5, 6, 7   Lee County, Virginia[xlvi]

Joseph Rogers  had an agreement with old William Roberts  [husband of Catherine Rogers ,  sister of Joseph] whereby he acquired an equitable interest to 1/8th to four tracts of land lying on Blackwater and including in one tract the same interest to the Blackwater saltworks.  The legal Title to the last was still in William Roberts name at the time of Joseph Rogers  death and the widow, Susannah Rogers  who was then m. to James Walling  was entitled to one third of one eight of the said land as her dower, Since she wanted to sell these lands the title had to be cleared.

However, we find that her children take the case back to Court in 1842.  All the parties in the suit are related to one another.

Chancery Order Book 1 – 1832-1868 – page 90 – Lee County Virginia[xlvii]

At Rules held in the Clerk’s office of the Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery, for Lee County, on Monday the 7th day of November 1842.

Henry Rogers , Edley H. Rogers ,  William M. Davis  and Louisa his  wife, formerly Louisa Rogers  and Thomas Russell  and Lucinda his wife , formerly Lucinda Rogers  heirs at Law of Joseph Rogers ,  deceased.                         

Complaint against:  James Roberts , William Roberts , Thomas Roberts , John Robert s , Jesse Roberts , Emanuel Roberts , George B. Roberts  and Jesse Robinett  and Susan his wife, heirs of William Roberts, deceased and Emanual Roberts , Elizabeth Roberts  and Joseph Roberts , heirs at law of Joseph Roberts, deceased and George Rogers ,  Commodore Rogers , Mary Rogers  and Joseph Rogers ,  heirs of Elizabeth Rogers ,  deceased. And Sally Lawson , Peggy Lawson , Susan Lawson  and Catherine Lawson , heirs of Mary Lawson , deceased. Defendants

The defendants, James Roberts , William Roberts , George B. Roberts , George Rogers ,  Commodore Rogers , Mary Rogers ,  and Joseph Rogers ,  not having entered their appearance and give security according to the Act of Assembly and the Rules of this Court and it appearing from satisfactory evidence that they are not inhabitants of this commonwealth, it is ordered that the Defendants do appear here on the first Monday in February next and answer the bill of the complaints and that a copy of this order be forwith inserted in some public newspaper published in this commonwealth for two months successively, and posted at the front door of the Courthouse of this County.


Blackwater German Baptist Church of the Brethren

I remember Dad telling me that my great-grandpa, Elbert Roberts, attended a German Baptist Church in Blackwater.  The German Baptist were also known as “Dunkers” since they believed in completely immersing a person three times during baptism.  They are commonly known as the Church of the Brethren today.

I have tried to find a location for this church in Blackwater, Virginia without success.  However, I did find the following reference to it at a very information Church of the Brethren website, http://www.cob-net.org/antietam/dunkers.htm :


What did the Dunkers believe concerning slavery, at the official denominational level? Since the Dunkers or Brethren had migrated from Pennsylvania into a few southern States (Maryland, Virginia) with significant slave populations, the issue of slavery would inevitably confront them denominationally at their Annual Conference. The earliest record of an official mention was in their Annual Conference minutes for 1797, held at Blackwater, Virginia: “It was considered good, and also concluded unanimously, that no brother or sister should have negroes as slaves; and in case a brother or sister had such he or she was to set them free.[1] This had the effect of barring members from Communion and even disfellowshipping those who persisted in retaining slaves. Again the issue was similarly reflected in the minutes of the 1713 Conference held at Coventry, Pennsylvania.”

This is interesting since my direct ancestors fought for the Union although they were Southerners.

Here is another information web site:  http://www.nps.gov/anti/historyculture/who-were-the-dunkers.htm.  Apparently, German Baptists played a big part in the battle of Sharpsburg.german-baptist-brethren-granger

German Baptists or Dunkers typically dressed similarly to the Amish and Mennonites.  They could be easily identified by their beards with no mustaches.  This reminds me of a story that Dad and Grandpa Baker told me when I was a kid.  I’m not sure if it was based on a real story or just a joke, but here is how it goes:

A German Baptist was riding a train and noticed that the man sitting across from him kept staring at him.  Finally, the man asked him, “Why do you wear your beard that way?”.  The German Baptist replied that he was a Dunker.  The man responded, “Well, I like to have a drink or two myself.  But I still don’t understand why you wear your beard that way.”

I hope that I didn’t offend you.  My Dad and Grandpa got tickled when they told that story.

If you have any more information on the German Baptist Church in Blackwater, I would love to hear it.  I have found a possible former location on the Blackwater Creek.  But I only have GPS coordinates for it.


The 2nd & 3rd ships to land at Plymouth Colony-The Anne & Little James

(Original URL:  http://www.immigrantships.net/v2/1600v2/anne_james16230710.html#Wallen)


Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild

Anne & Little James



Arrived in Plymouth, Massachusetts July 10, 1623

The ship Anne arrived the latter part of June, and the Little James a week or ten days later. A number of the passengers were the wives and children of persons already in the Colony. “The ship Anne arrived in Plymouth in July, 1623 accompanied by the Little James, bringing new settlers along with many of the wives and children that had been left behind in Leyden when the Mayflower departed in 1620.” Emigrant Ancestors, John Camden Hotten, 1874

“Built by the Plymouth Adventurers to remain at the Colony___ Burthen: 44 tons” William Peirce, Master Anne Emanuel Althan, Captain Little James John Bridges, Master Little James

Columns represent: Name, Occupation and notes, Last Residence, Place in New Colony they resided

 1  Anthony Annable                                     All Saints, Cambridge        Scituate 
 2  Jane Annable               wife
 3  Sarah Annable              daughter
 4  Hannah Annable             daughter listed only as 
                               daughters in Hotten's
 5  Edward Bangs               shipwright               Panfield, Essex              Eastham
 6  Lydia Bangs                wife - not listed in 
 7  Jonathan Bangs             son - not listed in 
 8  John Bangs                 son - not listed in 
 9  Robert Bartlett 
10  Fear Brewster              daughter of Elder Wm. 
11  Patience Brewster          daughter of Elder Wm. 
12* William Bridges                                    London 
13  Mary Buckett               otherwise listed as 
                               Mary Becket
14* Edward Burchere
15* Mrs. Burchere
16  Thomas Clarke
17  Christopher Conant         grocer                   St. Lawrence, London also listed from Holland
18  Hester Cooke               wife of Francis
19  Jane Cooke                 daughter - not listed 
                               in Hotten's
20  Jacob Cooke                son - not listed in 
21  Hester Cooke               daughter - not listed 
                               in Hotten's
22  Anthony Dix 
23  John Faunce                                         Purleigh, Essex
24  Manasseh Faunce            Not in Planters
25  Elizabeth Flavell          wife of Thomas Flavell, 
                               who came in the ship 
                               Fortune listed as 
                               "Goodwife" in Hotten's 
26  Edmund Floode
27  Bridget Fuller             ? wife of Samuel Fuller, 
                               the physician on the ship 
                               Mayflower from Leyden
28  Godbert Godbertson         hatmaker                 Leyden - listed as Cuthbert Cuthbertson in Hotten's
29  Sarah Godbertson           wife - not in Hotten's
30  Samuel Godbertson          son -  not in Hotten's
31  Sarah Priest               step-daughter - not 
                               in Hotten's
32  Mary Priest                step-daughter - not 
                               in Hotten's 
33  Timothy Hatherly           feltmaker                St. Olaves, Southward
34  William Heard 
35  Margaret Hickes            wife of Robert Hickes, 
                               who came in the ship 
36  Hickes children            Samuel and Lydia? - not 
                               listed in Planters
37  Mrs. William Hilton        wife - William had sent 
                               for them before his death 
38  Hilton two children        William and Mary ?
39  Edward Holman                                       Clapham, Co. Surrey?
40* John Jenney                Erected corn mill 1636   Norwich, Norfolk  
41* Sarah Jenney               wife                     Monk Soham, Suffolk
42* Samuel Jenney              son
43* Abigal Jenney              daughter
44* Sarah Jenney               daughter
45  Manasseh Kempton                                    Colchester, Essex
46  Robert Long 
47  Experience Mitchell                                 Duke's Place, London married Jane Cooke daughter of Francis Cooke of the Mayflower 
48* George Morton              b. abt 1580, England 
                               married 1612, Leyden, 
                               Holland to Juliana 
                               Carpenter, June 1624, 
                               Plymouth, Plymouth, Mass
                               merchant Harworth, Co. 
                               Notts - listed in Planters 
                               with wife but no children
49* Juliana Morton	       wife 
50* Nathaniel Morton           became Secretary of the 
51* Morton 4 other children    John, Ephraim, Patience, 
                               Sarah ?
52  Thomas Morton, Jr.         son of Thomas who came 
                               in the ship Fortune 
53  Ellen Newton 
54  John Oldham
55  Mrs. Oldham                wife - Not in Hotten's
56  Lucretia Oldham            sister - Not in Hotten's 
57  Frances Palmer             wife of William Palmer 
                               who came in the ship 
58  William Palmer Jr.         son  
59  Christian Penn             not listed in Planters
60  Abraham Pierce             not listed in Planters
61 & 62 Mr. Pierce's two servants. names not indicated
63  Joshua Pratt 
64  James Rand                                           St. George, Southwark
65  Robert Rattliffe           Ratcliff in Planters
66  Mrs. Rattliffe             wife - not listed in Planters
67  Nicholas Snow                                        Hoxton, Co. Middlesex        Eastham 
68  Alice Southworth           widow, later became the 
                               second wife of Governor 
69  Thomas Southworth          son - not in Hotten's 
70  Francis Sprague                                                                   Duxbury
71  Anna Sprague               wife - not in Hotten's
72  Mercy Sprague              daughter - not in Hotten's
73  Barbara Standish           second wife of Captain 
                               Standish, married after 
                               her arrival 
74  Thomas Tilden                                        Stepney, London
75  Ann ? Tilden               wife - not in Hotten's
76  Tilden child               not in Hotten's
77  Stephen Tracy                                        Yarmouth, Norfolk
78  Tryphosa Tracy             not in Hotten's
79  Tracy child                not in Hotten's
80  Ralph Wallen
81  Joyce Wallen               wife - not in Hotten's
82  Elizabeth Warren           wife of Richard Warren of 
                               Mayflower - no Warren's 
                               on Hotten's list
83  Mary Warren                daughter
84  Elizabeth Warren           daughter
85  Anna Warren                daughter
86  Sarah Warren               daughter
87  Abigail Warren             daughter
Transcriber's Notes:
Patience Brewster - 9th gr. grandmother of transcriber
Daughter of William Brewster of Mayflower, wife of Governor
of Plymouth Colony, Thomas Prence.
*Passengers on Little James

Correspondence 11/22/99 passengers #80, 81 WALLEN and #35 HICKES
I am a descendent of Ralph and Joyce Wallen, passengers #80 & 81.  I know 
that they stayed in Plymouth after arriving and that they had a son, 
Thomas Walling before 1630.  I have Ralph's date of death between 
1633-1634 and Joyce's after 9-7-1643.

Thomas Wallen/Walling

In honor of Thanksgiving, I thought that I would share this interesting post about one of my first ancestors in the United States.

(Original URL:  http://batteygen.net/getperson.php?personID=I460&tree=1)

Name Thomas Walling[1,2,3,4]
Born 1625-1630  [5]
Died 19 Jul 1674 Providence Plantations, Rhode Island, America Find all individuals with events at this location  [6]
Father Ralph Wallen, b. Abt 1590, England,,
Mother Joyce, b. Abt 1595, England,,
Spouse 1 Mary Abbott, b. 13 Dec 1629, Providence Plantations, Rhode Island, America
Married 1651 Providence, Providence County, Rhode Island Find all individuals with events at this location
> 1. Thomas Walling, b. 8 Feb 1667, Providence, Providence County, Rhode Island
2. Gershom Walling
3. Abigail Walling, b. 1677
> 4. James Walling, b. 8 Feb 1669, Providence Plantations, Rhode Island, America
Spouse 2 Margaret White
Married 19 Jun 1669 Providence, Providence County, Rhode Island Find all individuals with events at this location  [1]
1. William Walling, b. 20 May 1670
2. John Walling, b. 20 May 1670
3. Cornelius Walling, b. 25 Oct 1672

  • Notes
    • All of the information in the following account is from Saxbe (see source below). Saxbe provides many additional details and quotations. That Thomas Wallen/Walling was the son of Ralph and Joyce Wallen is somewhat speculative. Saxbe says this is the most likely parentage because Joyce Wallen lived in Barnstable when she remarried after Ralph died, Ralph and Joyce’s daughter Mary lived in Barnstable with her husbands (1) John Ewer and (2) John Jenkins, and no contradictory evidence has been found. Thomas Walling appears in the court records of Plymouth colony in 1650 because he and a few other men stole a boat in Winter Harbor (in present-day Maine) and sailed to Barnstable, Plymouth Colony, along with two women leaving their husbands. Saxbe quotes this record, but I copied it from Neuzil (see source). “The fourth of Aprell, 1650. Tho Wallen, Richard Carle, Gorg Way, Katheren Warner, and Mary Mills were apprehended at Barnstable, in the jurisdiction of New Plym; and on the eight day of Aprell, aforsaid, they being examined before William Bradford, gent, Gouer, Willam Collyar, and Willam Thomas, gent, Assistants, confessed yt they, the said Tho Wallen, Richard Carle, & Gorge Way did healpe away Katheren Warner & Mary Mills, who were run away from theire husbands; and for yt purpose yt Richard Carle aforsaid did steale his fathers boat, which they came away in; it was therefore ordered by the Gouer & Assistants aboue mensioned, taht the aforsaid Gorg Way, Katheren Warner, & Mary Mills should bee sent from constabel to constable to the place from whence they came, wh is a place called Winter Harbor, near Richmans Iland to the eastward; and yt Tho Wallen & Richard Carle aforsaid bee comitted to ward; all which accordingly was forthwith pformed.” Thomas received land August 24, 1650 in Providence Plantations. Then, a letter dated February 22, 1650/51 from Roger Williams to “the town fathers” expresses reservations about Thomas’ character and concern about his imminent marriage to Mary Abbot “one of the Orphanes of our dead friend Dan”. Thomas proved to be a solid citizen in Providence in the 1650s, holding various significant positions (which Saxbe enumerates). However, in 1662 Thomas had left Providence, Mary, and a child, and his land and property were seized for Mary’s sustenance. Thomas returned to Providence by October 1663, and he bought land in 1663, 1664, 1665, and 1666. In October 1664, Thomas was fined 40 shillings for fornication with a woman named Ann Smith. In October 1666, Thomas was found guilty of assault on Robert Colwell and paid a bond of 20 pounds, but he failed to appear in court and forfeited his bond. It turned out that he had run away with Colwell’s wife Margaret White, whom Colwell subsequently divorced. In April 1668, Thomas was a partner in Edward Inman’s purchase of 2000 acres of land from “the Indians” in the area that is now North Smithfield, Rhode Island. In May 1668, George Way (Gorg Way in the Plymouth court record above), and Thomas’ brother in law Daniel Abbott presented Thomas to the court of Providence for fornication with Margaret Colwell. He was sentenced to be “whipt with fifteene stripes in Newport, and a weeke after, the licke punishment in the Towne of providence and to pay Court Fees.” Mary Abbott died in early 1669, and Thomas married Margaret on June 19, 1669. Saxbe appends a short but juicy account of Margaret and her marriage to Daniel Abbott in 1678, four years after Thomas died on July 19 1674. Thomas’ will mentions Margaret, his four children with Mary Abbott, and his three children with Margaret. From Crane: “Thomas Walling (i), the immigrant ancestor of Nelson Walling, late of Millbury, Massachusetts, was born in England about 1630. He came to New England and made his home in the colony of Roger Williams at Providence. He was formally accepted as a townsman, July 28, 1651. He had been there for some months surely, because we find him mentioned in a letter dated January 22, 1651, as the lover of the girl he subsequently married. This letter was written by Roger Williams himself at Narragansett in the town of Providence. “I understand” he wrote ” that one of the orphans of our dead friend, Daniel Abbott, is likely (as she herself told me) to be disposed of in marriage. Tis true that she has now come to some years, but who knows not what need the poor maid hath of your fatherly care, counsel and direction. I would not disparage the young man (for I hear that he hath been laborious)” etc. He desires the town, however, to have some assurance that the young man “will forsake his former courses.” Whatever Williams meant by his courses is not told— probably some religious differences, from the fact that Walling evidently conformed later and was admitted a freeman in 1655. He became a man of prominence. As early as 1657 he was a commissioner and magistrate. In 1660 he was surveyor of highways in Providence. He sold a home share of land January 25, 1657, to Richard Pray, and he drew lot No. 72 in a division of land among the proprietors of Providence, February 19, 1665. He had a law suit with Thomas Olney, Jr., July 27, 1670. He died at Providence, Rhode Island, July 19, 1674. His will was dated July 19, 1674, and proved November 22, 1674, his wife Margaret being executor. He bequeathed his farm to his sons Thomas, John and William Walling; his house to William; other lands to sons James and Cornelius and remembered his daughter Abigail with a trifle. His widow, December 13, 1675, confirmed a deed of fifty acres of land sold by her late husband to Daniel Abbott. Mr. Walling married Mary Abbott, daughter of Daniel and Mary Abbott. Daniel was a friend of Roger Williams and Mary was the orphan mentioned in the letter quoted. Mr. Walling married (second), June 19, 1669, a few months after the death of his first wife, Margaret Colwell, daughter of Robert Colwell [This is apparently and error, as Robert is shown to be her husband in court documents, and she is named “Margaret White”], and . She married (second), December 25, 1678, Daniel Abbott. She died 1717. Children of Thomas and Mary Walling were : Thomas, married, 1695, Sarah Elwell and they had ten children; removed to Cohansey, New Jersey, but some of the family remained and descendants lived at Providence. Gershom, settled in Providence ; apprenticed very young to Nathaniel Mowry January 27, 1667. Abigail, died unmarried 1677. James, see forward. Children of Thomas and Margaret Walling were : William, born May 20, 1670. John, born May 20, 1670, died November II, 1694, unmarried : estate administered by his brother Thomas. Cornelius, born October 25, 1672.”

  • Sources
    1. [S151] Thomas Walling and His Way with Women, William B. Saxbe Jr., (The American Genealogist, April, 1998, pp.91 – 100.)
    2. [S152] Women in Plymouth Colony, 1633-1668, Anna Neuzil, Go to the Web Page
    3. [S270] Historic Homes and Institutions and Genealogical and Personal Memoirs of Worcester County Massachusetts, Prepared under the Editorial Supervision of Ellery Bicknell Crane, (Vol. II New York, Chicago The Lewis Publishing Company 1907)
    4. [S269] Cookie Crumbs, Gregory Cooke, (Go to the Web Page“>Go to the website)
    5. [S63] U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900 Yates Publishing. U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900 [database online]. Provo, Utah: MyFamily.com, Inc., 2004.
    6. [S24] Rhode Island Deaths, 1630-1930 Rhode Island Vital Records. [database online] Orem, UT: Ancestry, Inc., 2000.

Sliding down the teaberry patch

My grandpa Claude Baker grew up along the Clinch River in Kyles Ford, Tennessee.  Two of his best friends growing up were Dillard and Rufus Fisher.  Being boys, they entertained themselves and tended to get into mischief together.

Teaberry plants

On one of the local ridges was a teaberry patch.  The leaves were nice and slick, and the boys liked to slide down the ridge on them.  One day, they were doing just that, when Rufus realized that he had to have a bowel movement.  He yelled up at his brother Dillard to hold off on sliding down for a minute.  He then took care of his business, covered it up with leaves, and yelled up at Dillard to come on down.  Dillard slid down and right through Rufus’ little surprise.  Rufus took off running as hard as he could, laughing all the way.

Grandpa found out what had happened and burst out laughing too.  Especially when he saw Dillard walking down the road with a rock behind his back, yelling, “Come on back Rufus.  I’m not mad.  I’m not going to hurt you.  Come on back.”

1782 Land Taxes Pittsylvania County, Virginia


Name                                                   Acres

Joseph Bayes                                       350

William Beel                                          100

William Griggory                                  60

Clement McDaniel                               300

James Caldwell                                     300

John Watkins                                       100

Samuel Brooks                                      125

Henry Blanks                                        175

Abednigo Tunner                                50                                                                                                                           Thomas James                                      100

John Onern                                           100

John Bayes Senior                               96

John Bayes Junior                               50

Stephen Coleman                                 800

Richard Brown                                      1166

Martha Stewart                                     400

Isham Farmer                                        445

John Terrill                                            400

William Hughes                                    200

Charles Irby                                          350

William Claibrook                                 400

Mary Dudgean                                     400

Richard Bayne                                      1000

Thomas Shields                                    80

Joseph Leak                                          100

Benjamin Brawner                                160

John Wimbish                                      2556

Beverley Barksdale                              324

Robert Mann                                        300

William Walron                                    670

Rawley White                                       460

Ambrose Hailey                                   225

David Terry                                           516

James Gray                                            880

Catherine Walker                                 800

Martha Lacy                                         400

Elijah King                                             434

Benjamin Terry                                     1000

Amos Thompson                                 900

Floyd Tanner                                        372

Reubin White                                       538

John Shackleford                                 112

Ambrose Corbin                                   100

Rubin Payne                                         1173

William Wright                                     255

Mark Hardin                                          200

John Martin                                          320

Thomas Corbin                                     130

Joseph Mottley                                    1512

Joseph Mottley                                    1512

William Willis                                       400

Braxton Mabrie                                     306

Daniel White                                         259

Joseph Mooreland                               250

Webb Kidd                                           200

Tucker Woodson                                 400

David Mottley                                      500

James Tanner                                        300

Jeremiah Ellington                                830

John Yates                                            100

Joseph Terry                                         550

Joab Meadows                                     100

William Terry                                        200

Enoch Ward Ellington                         200

William Ragsdale                                 270

Lucy Williams                                      510

Henry McDaniel                                   200

Lewis Williams                                     95

Roger Atkinson                                    5254

Mattox Mayes                                      480

Joseph Mayes                                      320

Stephen Terry                                       202

Colo. Robert Williams                         3866

Thomas Stratton                                  138

John Fox                                                1100

Abraham Murray                                 400

Francis Wisdom                                   485

Mark Shelton                                        200

William Handey                                    200

Benjamin Handey                                 400

James Conway’s Orphans                  300

George Handy Senior                          60

George Handy Junior                          238

Charles Lewis                                       260

John Lewis                                       160

Henry Terry Jr                                      200

Thomas Shaw                                       200

James Haggard                                     200

Henry Terry Senior                              356

Charles McLaughlin                            200

John Fitzgerald                                     400

James Henry                                         5600

Gardner Mayes                                     400

William Hamblin                                   400

Thomas Hill                                      400

Samuel Slate                                     100

Jacob Chainey                                   720

Joseph Chainey                                    100

John Creel                                        260

John Atkinson                                      150

Nathanial Hughes                                100

Hugh Kelly                                            200

Joseph Terry Senior                         150

William Herring                                    870

John H Hendrick                                  400

Mathew Tanner   400

John Prestage                                    400

George Grubbs                                     200

Thomas Shelton                                   190

William Shelton                                    200

Thomas Dodson Senior                      280

Nathaniel Gardner                                50

Lazarous Dodson                                 450

Thomas Madding                                100

John Farguson                                     400

Thomas Dodson Jr                              150

William Ingrium                                    400

Mary Hodnett                                       200

Robert Martin                                       270

Allen Adams                                         100

Spencer Shelton                                   370

Daniel Shelton                                      400

Crispin Shelton                                     1070

Gabriel Shelton                                     415

Abraham Shelton                                 1352

Charles Lanier Jr                                   200

Vincent Shelton                                    356

David Irby                                             370

Thomas Jones                                      1266

William Warmock                                 270

Jeremiah White                                     908

Elijah Walters                                       188

William Bennett                                    200

Creed Tanner                                        200

John Wilson                                         192

John Spencer                                        188

Roberts Walters Senior                       722

Robert Walters (son of Robert)         165

William Runnalds                                 204

Luke Miller                                            157

Robert Clopton                                     100

Gidion Shelton                                      500

Joshua Owen                                        100

James Diverson                                    100

Samuel Morris                                      100

Heath Garner                                         150

Matt Anderson                                    130

George Dodson                                    250

David Dodson                                      219

Joshua Dodson                                    150

Moses Hanks                                    220

Ezekiel Chaney                                100

James Watson                                      100

John Hall                                          500

John Bennett                                        180

Thomas Bennett                                   100

Alexander Lee                                       100

Joseph Flipping                                629

Capt John Walters                               200

Jonathan Hill                                    303

John Walters                                        200

Robert Walters (Son of Thomas)     200

Chechester Matthews                         200

Thomas Walters Senior                      775

Joseph Slayton                                     400

Peter Martin                                          150

Nimrod Scott                                         163

William Richardson                             76

Daniel Slayton                                      400

Robert Martin                                       130

James McMunday                               300

Rhoderick McDaniel                            100

William Madding                                 140

Faunious Dodson                                100

James Madding                                    176

James Adams                                        374

Jonathan Weldons’s Orphans           250

Rubin Watkin’s Orphans                    180

Pleasant Shields                                   230

John Hall Senior                                   175

Nathaniel Murry                                   230

William Murray                                    175

John Scott                                             175

Jeremiah Stimpson                               192

Euramus Stimson                                 122

Robert Stimpson                                  123

Daniel Everett                                       275

George Cook Jr                                     100

John Waller                                           710

James Hollaway                                    97

Absalum Hindrick                                295

Joseph Echolls Jr                                 440

Samuel Prunett                                     392

Abraham Murick                                  304

John Stamps                                         194

Edward Burgass                                   270

Thomas Wynne                                   915

William Harrison                                  249

William Durrott                                     300

Gabriel Richards                                   250

Moses Ayres                                        360

Joshua Handy                                      314

William Owen                                       200

Thomas Ayres                                      161

Colo. John Lanier (Bind)                     1140

Cap William Thomas                           2649

William Combs                                     320

John Woody                                         1000

Benjamin Stratton                                375

Charles Payne                                       62

John Worsham                                     666

Samuel Jones                                        200

George Lumkin Jr                                 150

Nathan Jones                                        200

Jacob Stillwell                                       200

Jacob Stillwell Jr                                   200

George Allen Davis                             300

Sythe Gowning                                     400

William Parr                                           400

Martain Beard                                       200

William Travis                                      109

Charles Wynne                                    600

Robert Wynne                                      150

John Wynne                                         208

Thomas Fearn                                       375

Robert Payne                                        200

William Dix                                            500

John Dix                                                 903

James Dix                                               200

William Dennison                                350

Daniel Worsham                                  63

Thomas Wilkinson                              151

John Haskins                                        190

John Wier                                              300

Bezaliel Wier                                         286

Thomas Pistol                                       150

Gabriel May                                          400

James Nelson                                        100

William Tweddle                                  200

Robert Glascock                                   400

William Wilkinson                               621

Joseph Jackson                                    335

Thomas Burgas Jr                                400

Orlando Smith                                       739

John Kirby                                            350

William Price                                         600

William Stratton                                   213

Charles Cates                                        400

Jacob Farris                                           320

Charles Lewis Senior                           240

Henry Snider                                         250

Simon Rowland                                    300

John Bird                                              200

Henry Mitchell                                     383

Benjamin Fambrough                          70

Edm’d Taylor 195

Martha Clark                                         200

Peter Irby                                               800

John Thurston                                      300

John Shelton                                         225

Thomas Davis                                      257

John Cates                                            200

William Paine                                        500

Thomas Paine                                       240

Richard Keezee                                     300

John Waller                                           100

Beverley Shelton                              396

Armistead Shelton                               2457

Mary Wade                                           200

James Wade                                          391

Peter Legrand                                       800

Cain Adams                                          175

John Adams Senior                             513

John Adams Jr                                      175

John Parks                                             255

Colo. Robert Wooding                        800

John Davis Jr                                        100

Stephen Yates                                      50

Nathan Adams                                     266

George Rowland                                   100

Thomas Harkins                                   100

Allen Burton                                         100

Thomas Doss                                       370

William Tucker                                     810

William Pace                                         800

Newsam Pace                                        162

John Pace                                              280

Morrice Hamblett’s Orphans             130

James Parham                                       265

Mary Buford                                         235

Moses Childners                                  90

Thomas Burgass Senr                         740

Theophelus Carter                               1860

James Lawless Jr                                  200

John Wright                                          134

William Cotterall                                   396

Henry Hardin Senr                               520

Henry Hardin Jr                                    188

Burwell Vadin                                       388

Thomas Chambers                               182

William Summers                                  307

Peter J Bailey                                        150

David Tanner                                        150

Joseph Rogers                                      596

Ambrose Nelson                                  136

Ann Fallin                                             200

William Lynch                                      2396

Alexander Murray                                1000

Samuel Bynum                                      200

Philip Adams                                        200

Ignatius N Tennerson                         200

Samuel Harris                                        4890

William Duncan                                    138

Larkin Dix                                              165

Robert Lumkin                                      366

Henry Mickleberry                               200

Moses Freeman                                    100

John Gee                                                100

James Burton                                        500

James Burks                                          318

David Lay Senior                                 150

Daniel Ragsdale                                   400

Jacob Whitworth                                 50

James McDaniel                                   100

Jasper Billings                                      100

William Runnalds                                 200

Thomas Clay                                         1000

Charles Clay                                          1000

Charles Smith                                        1700

Elizabeth McDaniel                              400

John May                                              200

John Asher                                           120

John Harness’s Orphans                    100

Joseph Hamblin                                    300

John Mullins                                         100

Josiah Cook                                          130

John Cook                                             100

John Long                                             162

Jasper Tomberlain                                290

Mathew Clay                                        1000

Nathan Asher                                       500

Priscilla Hall                                          200

Richard Elliott                                       162

Starling Cates                                       677

William Quinn                                       152

Eliazar Clay                                            770

William Connar                                     100

William Munday                                  50

Francis Rose                                         100

Richard Ardin                                       100

Redmond Fallin                                    75

John Southerland                                 1252

George Southerland                             1763

Hames Gwinn                                        400

George Homes Gwinn                          190

William Astin Senior                           318

Peter Wilson                                         599

William Wilson                                     1000

Charles Williams                                  75

Edwin Hammonds                                250

John Stone Senr                                   85

John Stone Jr                                        130

John Ware                                             350

William Shelton                                    278

Sylvester Adams                                  4450

Jonathan Church                                  404

Richardson Whiteby                           300

Colo. John Wilson                               4070

Rich’d Gwin                                          730

Thomas Smith                                       2287

John Smith                                            4048

Hezekiah Smith                                     930

John McMillion                                    65

Thomas Drake                                      90

John Fulton                                           1140

John Vandegrief                                   400

Moses Vincent                                     150

Robert Cullum                                       100

James Fulton                                         890

Barnett McCullock                               300

James Boaze                                          734

William Vincent                                    575

Shadrick Boaz                                       180

Thomas Boaz                                        3377

Robert Wooding                                  240

Edward Atkins                                      700

Moses Johnson                                   130

William Roberson                                562

Thomas Roberson                               470

William Astin                                        700

James Craine                                         312

John Poyner                                          480

William Rickett                                     185

Henry Cornwell                                    250

Jesse Carter                                           1300

John Chattin                                         492

Zachariah Waller                                  200

Henry Hall                                             100

William Jones                                       400

Phillmon Payne                                     170

William Parks                                        170

Edmund Payne                                     244

William Davis                                       700

Richard Farthing                                  300

Joseph Midkiff                                     296

William Hames                                      400

Moses Hurt                                           400

Wm Lightfoot’s Orphans                   4400

Jacob Nicholas                                     400

Joseph Roberts                                    464

Benjamin Shelton                                 570

Joel Shelton                                          200

Daniel Jenkins 296

Jesse Hodges                                       380

John Ballinger                                       950

Edward Burton                                     245

Cornelius McHaney                            1000

William Chick                                        400

Thomas East                                         342

John Pemberton                                   250

John H Patrick                                    800

Wm Luck                                               500

Joel Hurt                                                149

John Craddock                                     390

James Mitchell                                      400

Benj. Lankford                                      400

James Buckley                                      700

James George                                        597

William Alford                                      170

Charles Lynch Adams                         500

George Allen                                         350

Edward Munford                                  400

John Barrott Jr                                      50

James Bruice                                         190

John Buckley                                        728

Thomas Collins                                    633

John Clements                                      533

Rich’d Chick                                         300

Charles Crenshaw                                2500

Pleasant Thurman                                300

William Doss                                        271

James Doss Senr                                  377

John Doss                                             135

Thomas Davis                                      410

James Dejarnett                                    100

Joseph Echolls                                     400

Joshua Abston                                     292

William Ervine                                      510

Joseph Harris Senr                               300

Joseph Fanning Jr                                100

Charles Fanning                                   100

Edward Flowers                                    400

Michael Gilbert                                     100

Benjamin Hendrick                               100

Philip Perkins                                        150

Nathaniel Hendrick                              407

Colo. Charles Lynch                            614

James Hunt                                           200

James Henderson                                 492

David Hunt                                           1204

Nathaniel Hunt                                     400

Francis Irby                                           409

John Johnson                                       300

Samuel Lattamore                                 185

Thomas Mustein                                  340

Daniel Morgan                                     299

Thomas Musteen                                 570

Blanks Moody                                      400

James Moore                                        212

Haynes Morgan                                   658

Jesse Pattey                                          223

Edward Pryor                                        150

Thomas Robinson                               200

John Robinson                                     100

Joel Short                                              70

Joshua Short                                         39

Misheck Tanner                                   1166

Richard Thurman                                 550

Robert Templeton                                100

William Vaughan                                  300

John Vaughan                                      392

Thomas Vaughan Jr                             396

Thomas Vaughan Senr                        170

Odediah Hendrick                                400

George Wilcox                                      168

Owen West                                           700

Absalum Ramey                                   170

Nathan Glenn                                        307

Benjamin Clements Exor                      375

Capt. Isaac Clements                           746

Thomas Carlton                                    370

John Short                                             186

Elizabeth Holden                                  50

Burwell Vadin                                       360

Thomas Adams                                    300

Robert Adams                                      400

Joseph Prunitt                                      50

Moses Hutchings                                350

Ann Thompson                                    737

James Burks                                          218

Basdale Nelson                                    100

Christopher Hutchings                       1022

Samuel Dillard                                       510

Elijah Parkham                                      267

Charles Clay                                          1300

Daniel Ragsdale                                   600

Joseph Richards                                   150

Jonas Lawson                                       600

Leonard Tunstall                                  700

Sylvanus Stokes                                  1537

George Hamblin                                    650

Edward Ware                                        490

Aaron Hutchings                                 540

Hezekiah Pigg                                       1800

Joshua Cantrill                                      987

Jesse Robinson                                    1941

James Bleakley                                     500

James Magabee                                    200

Jacob Isaac                                           300

Henry Rollins                                        410

Jonathan Thomas                                250

Samuel Shields                                     775

James Garner                                         585

John Bowin                                           400

William Shields                                     473

Matthew Sparkes                                 796

James Young                                        150

John Harris                                            100

John Young                                          120

Shadrick Turner                                    200

Joseph Shields                                     651

Gilbert Burnett                                      96

James Denton                                       142

John Beggarley                                    100

Elizabeth Cunningham                        100

Henry Burnett                                       261

Thomas Shields                                    70

Thomas Cunningham                          157

John Shields                                         150

William Beck                                         600

Benjamin Crawley                                488

Spencer Runnalds                                200

Rich’d Tanner                                      150

John Cox                                                109

James Cox                                              437

Zachariah Sneed                                  150

James Burnett                                       400

Jacob Riger                                           210

Joseph Cunningham                            916

Shadrack Scare                                     100

William Booker                                     100

John Gammon                                       409

Benjamin White                                    200

Edward Legg                                         60

John Owens                                          308

William Owens                                     100

Thomas Finley                                      113

Rich’d Gibson                                       100

Jiles Gibson                                           100

Richard Lay                                           100

Robert Payne                                        560

James Lyle                                             96

Thomas Duncan                                   200

Hal. Dixon                                              1200

John McLane                                        300

Samuel Bynum                                      200

William Barton                                      300

William Duncan                                    170

Robert Clements                                   300

William Thaxton                                   640

Elizabeth Yates                                     130

John Yates                                            270

William Harrison                                  1644

Nicholas Perkins                                  927

Constant Perkins                                  2598

Hardin Perkins                                      370

William Wodley                                   246

Jonathan Church                                  700

Nehemiah Trayham                              236

Nathaniel McGufford                          200

Robert Crockett                                    300

Nathan Watson                                    650

John Norton                                          140

William Sutton                                      375

Thomas Sparks                                     350

Thomas Hill                                           786

John Still                                                662

Jacob Norton                                        300

Nehemiah Norton                                 300

William Watson                                   366

Edward Givins                                      700

George Davis                                        180

John Davis                                            192

William Davis                                       350

George Conn                                         150

William Mitchell                                   150

Ignatious Wilson                                 164

Presley Thornton                                 150

Elizabeth Conely                                  40

Zadock Barnett                                     100

John Brown                                           134

Joseph Minter                                      190

Edward Cahall                                       217

Edward Warren                                    250

John Briscoe                                         250

Charles Oakes                                       221

Miss Clay & Company                        4000

James Oakes                                         221

Joseph Conn                                         1337

Philip Jenkins                                        100

Butter Stone Street                              150

Ellender Norton                                    100

William Oakes                                       75

Samuel Lewis                                        300

Samuel/Lemuel  Smith                         632

Daniel Dodson                                     700

Philip Perkins                                        300

Thomas Hampton                                495

David Harris                                          100

William Southerland                            100

Thomas Stephens                                100

Isham Lansford                                    100

David Stephens                                    100

Henry Lansford                                    250

Joseph Harris                                        200

George Fuller Harris                             200

David Scales                                         300

Mathew Nance                                     200

Sarah Watkins                                      223

Robert Bullington                                400

Giles Nance                                           800

Minen Smith                                         112

William Mitchell                                   160

Zachariah Grooms                                100

James King                                            200

George Young                                      200

Capt. Joseph Morton                          1053

John Govin                                            400

John Pigg                                              900

Benjamin Burnett                                 440

Thomas Price                                        400

Rich’d Chamberlan’s Orphans           400

Pyrant Easley                                        205

Samuel Davis                                        150

William Short                                        800

George Prosize                                      100

Nathaniel Thacker                                190

Joseph Thacker                                    60

George Miers                                        200

Thomas Wade                                      200

Thomas Hardy                                      700

Joshua Welch                                       230

David Weatherford                              100

Wm Hardy’s Orphans                         500

Charles Wright                                     100

Wyth Allen                                           180

Roger Atkinson                                    800

William Easley                                      715

William Parsons                                   50

Joseph Parsons                                    120

George Parsons                                    270

Samuel Parsons                                    50

William Moore                                      100

John Medkiff                                        400

Richard Pigg                                         40

Majar Willis                                          200

Major James Johnson                         150

Thomas Armstead                               1600

Edmund Hodges                                  750

John Hodges                                        137

Thomas Hodges                                   260

George Dyer                                          50

Abraham Allen                                     240

Watson Hindy                                      376

Joel Atkins                                            110

William Atkins                                      100

Nathanial Atkins                                  100

James Atkins                                        50

Joseph Hundley                                   250

Luther Hopper                                      300

John Martin                                          100

Elizabeth Mayes                                   50

Richard Atkins                                     100

William Prosize                                     300

William Lucas                                       100

Walter Lamb                                         800

Jesse Duncan                                       100

Epapa White                                         588

John Emmerson                                    400

Rich’d Prewitt                                       150

William Pigg                                          360

Robert Duncan                                     297

Samuel Emmerson                                390

William Devin                                       731

William Leak’s Orphans                      400

William Devin Jr                                   200

James Biggers                                       100

John White                                           349

John Biswell                                          800

Joseph Austin                                      702

John Morton                                         1885

Daniel Johnson                                    200

Joseph Ballinger                                   305

Martin Webb                                        200

Samuel Mosley                                     100

Arthur Nash                                          234

Daniel Hankins                                     7167

Jacob Cooley                                        270

Joseph Alsup                                       200

Thomas Johns                                      555

Thomas Searenton                               740

John Stocktone                                    1546

Jacob Cleaverland                                200

Arthur Fuller                                         105

Zachariah Fallin                                    200

John Warren                                         250

Benjamin Benie                                    500

John Peancey                                      100

Peter Fields Jefferson                          1100

George Jefferson’s Estate                   1561

William Matthews                                200

John Wooton                                       130

Wm/Mr Hamblin                                  320

Abraham Aaron                                   220

James Brewer                                        1273

James Mitchell                                      200

Drury Oliver Estate                              492

John Philpot                                          500

James Roberts                                      1386

William Roberts                                    546

Robert Onn                                           1000

Hugh Runnalds                                    65

Leonard Delosher                                250

Benjamin Sampson                              288

George Smith                                        894

William Nealley                                    50

Rebecca Mahan                                   250

Joseph Reynalds                                  260

Benjamin Duncan                                 100

Edward Jones                                       400

Samuel Martin                                      160

Thomas Read                                        200

John Ball                                                280

Samuel Calland                                     415

John Cheedle                                        280

James Dunough 400

John Cornwell                                       100

James Shockley                                    350

Elijah Watkins                                      500

Charlton Shockley                               250

Harmon Cook                                        1052

Joseph Walker                                      100

John Watson                                        523

Simon Justice                                        220

William Wright                                     400

John Junley 302

Charles Rigney                                     200

William Wright                                     800

James King                                            130

John Swinney                                       100

Alexander Lackey                                480

Colo. John Markham                           1600

Robert Bruce                                         247

John Griggory                                       260

William Dunning                                  240

John George                                          1159

John Bailey                                           400

Samuel Hughes                                    633

James Lawless                                      611

John Dyer                                              333

Aaron McKenny                                  162

John Cleaver                                         250

Thomas Finny                                      260

Thomas Lackey                                    400

Joseph Maples                                     257

William Hopwood                                400

George Murphy                                    238

William Goodman                                 582

Hugh Henry                                          400

James Taylor                                         271

William Bucknall                                  100

Samuel Crain                                         1200

Noton Dickinson                                  488

Jeremiah Worsham                              338

Josiah Farguson                                   60

John Duncan                                        395

Thomas Watson Jr                              466

Thomas Watson Senior                      200

Humphrey Hendrick                            700

John Pond                                             200

William Maples                                    163

William Griffith’s Estate                      400

Frances More Petty                             300

Killian Kreck                                         150

Thomas Black                                       498

Benjamin Leprad                                  430

Alexander Robinson                            322

John Kirby                                            100

William Burdet                                      120

Robert Cowan                                       100

Sarah Davis                                           170

William Irving                                       150

Michael Gilbert                                     200

William Justice                                     266

Peyton Smith                                        612

Peter Finney                                          400

Henry Conway                                     1026

Lodowick Tuggle                                 600

George Peak                                          100

Joseph King                                          185

Thomas Ramey                                     200

William Young                                      1232

David Polley                                         673

William Sheilds                                     100

William Witcher                                   100

John Witcher                                        190

James Witcher                                      202

William Parker                                       50

Jeremiah Ward                                      431

Peyton Wade                                        50

Daniel Lovell                                         500

Richard Bennet                                     256

Thomas Bennett                                   75

Booker Smith                                        150

Jesse Keezee                                         250

James Kann                                           450

George Herndon                                   250

David Ross                                           6792

James Mitchell                                      546

William Mitchell                                   400

Bryant Ward Nowling                         318

David Dalton                                        126

Robert Dalton                                       85

William Thompson                              450

John Hensley                                        100

Abraham Goad                                     180

George Phillips                                     150

James Dalton                                        100

Benjamin Tarrant                                  645

John Dalton                                          270

William Bennet                                     275

Reubin Bennet                                      274

John Lawson                                        290

William Ward                                        1626

John Collin                                            300

John Wheeler                                       300

Richard Walden                                   1030

William Baber                                       224

Charles Callaway                                  500

Ralph Smith                                           898

John Talbot                                           570

William Smith                                        150

Nathan Thurman                                  700

Littleberry Patterson                            400

Thomas Tunstall                                  1142

John Ward                                            1388

Thomas Barnett                                    100

Preston Gilbert                                      250

Thos Tunstall from Rich’d Brown     96

Jeremiah Keesee                                   450

Sarah Vaughan                                     149

Roger Atkinson                                    13000

Jonathan Phillips                                  400

Nottley Wheate                                    100

Charles Goad                                        200

Pattience Dalton                                   200

Gidion Shelton                                      170

James Downey                                     400

Edward Hampton                                 200

Arthur Keezee                                      200

Jesse Evins                                           160

Benjamin Shelton Jr                             200

John Williams                                       200

John Doss                                             200

William McDuel                                   200

Jacob Barryer                                      240

Daniel Bates                                          200

Ambrose Hunt                                      120

Peter Perkins                                         1000

James Andrews                                    300

William Allin Senr                                190

William Betterton                                 434

Henry Brown                                        210

Major Childres                                      200

Gilbert Hunt                                          637

John Kelly                                             50

Joshua Stone                                        1413

John Ward Jr                                        913

Joseph Cook                                         400

William Vason                                      300

Joseph West Senior                            350

James Magbee                                      100

William Todd                                        600

Richard Todd                                        100

Robert Farguson                                  75

A Copy Teste

Jos. Akin   D.C.P.C.

Oaths of Allegiance – 1777 Pittsylvania County, VA


copy done by Cynthia Hubbard Headen

source: The Magazine of VA Genealogy, v.23, #1 (Feb.1985), transcribed by Marian Dodson Chiarito

These lists were taken from a typewritten copy found in the Clerk’s Office, Pittsylvania County, at Chatham, Virginia.  The two following affidavits found attached to the copy are self- explanatory.

I, S. H. F. Jones, do hereby certify that about the year 1930 I personally copied and had checked the names of persons who took the oath of Allegiance in 1777 as shown by manuscripts then in the Clerk’s Office of Pittsylvania County, Virginia.  The writing was faded and a few names could not be deciphered.  Every effort was made to transcribe the names as they appeared on the manuscripts.  The names of the foregoing Lists are a true and correct copy of the aforesaid manuscripts to the best of my knowledge and belief.  The lists were also checked by Mr. Langhorne Jones, atty. Given under my hand and seal this 8th day of November, 1939. S. H. F. Jones (Seal)

State of Virginia Pittsylvania County, To-wit: I, E. E. Friend, Clerk of the Circuit Court of Pittsylvania County, Virginia, the same being a Court of Record, do hereby certify that Mrs. S. H. F. Jones whose name is signed to the foregoing writing bearing date 8th day of November 1939, personally appeared before me in my county, Office and State aforesaid and made oath that the foregoing statements are true to the best of her knowledge and belief.  Given under my hand this 8th Nov. 1939. E. E. Friend Clerk Pittsylvania Circuit Court Chatham, VA

List of George Carter Beverly Barksdale William Bennett Jno. Campbell Abrm. Chaney Jacob Chaney Joseph Chaney Zekial Chaney Chas. Chelton Mark Chelton Thos. Chelton Jno. Chilton William Chilton Matthew Cox Thomas Crain James Craine Thomas Creal Jno. Creel Jeremiah Deadman Elisha Dodson Geo. Dodson Lazarus Dodson Rolly Dodson Thos. Dodson John Fitzgerald Daniel Gardner Heath Gardner Nath. Gardner Sylvany Gardner James Haggard Henry Harding Martin Harding Geo. Hardy, Jun. Joshua Hardy William Hardy Micajah Harley John H. Hedrick William Ingram Jeffry Johnson Chs. Kennon Elisha King Francs. Kirby Henry Kirby Henry Kirby, Sr. John Kirby, Jun. William Kirby Jno. Walter Kupper James Lawless Chs. Lewis Jno. Lewis Thos. Lomox Matthias McBee Chas. McLaughton James McLees John Madden, Jun. Joshua Owens Rolly Owens Jno. Paul Thomas Peyne John Prestridge Jno. Prestridge, Jr. William Price William Ryburn Nimrod Scott Joshua Shirlock Samuel Slate Ben. Stratton Thos. Stratton Jno. Talleaferro William Taylor Barton Terry Ben Terry Charles Terry David Terry Harry Terry Henry Terry Jno. Terry Joseph Terry Joseph Terry, Jun. Thos. Terry Jno. Waller Richd. Watson John Winters Elias Wodson Jno. Wright Malachiah (unknown)

Persons Refusing to take Oath Abrm. Campbell Saml. Kirby Uriah Pruitt William Russell

Thomas Dillard, List Chas. L. Adams Henry Barton William Bingham John Bowmer Henry Brown James Brown Robert Bruce William Cash William Chick James Childress Major Childress Matthew Childress Isaac Clement Stephen Clements Joseph Collon William Collon John Dillard James Doss James Doss John East, Sen. Joseph East Thos. East Samuel Eblin Richard Ellis Edward Evens George Evens George Evens, Jr. Moses Faris William Fealder Nathl. Handrake Thomas Hardie Tho. Harris Jacob Holland Sec. Hook David Hunt Thomas Kersey Harmon King John Luck Moses McDaniel James Markin Henry Mullins Jacob Nichols John Owen Thorpe Parrott Jessey Pattey Green Wood Payne John Pemberton William Pemberton Joseph Slater Christopher Sutton Issac Tynes James Vaughan John Vaughan Thomas Vaughan William Vaughan George West John West Joseph West Joseph West, Jr. Owen West George Wilcox, Jr. George Wilcox, Sen.

Stephen Coleman’s List Richard Bayn Charles Beasley Henry Blanks John Boise Joseph Boise Josiah Boise Ben. Brawner Samuel Brooks John Brown Nathan Brown Richard Brown, Sen. James Cardwell William Childress Richard Chumney William Connelly William Donaldson Moses Estes John Farguson Joseph Farguson Isham Farmer James Farmer James Farmer, Jun. David Gwyn Thos. Gwyn Ambrose Haley John Hammond David Henry Hugh Henry Isaac Henry Thos. Hutchings David James Edward Jones Thomas Jones John Justice Joseph Leak Thos. Leak John Martin Jacob Meadows George Murphy James Murphy, Jun. James Murphy, Sr. John Owen Thos. Pass Reuben Payne William Porter William Ragsdale William Right William Russell John Shackleford Cornelius Short James Singleton Thos. Sparks Abrm. Spencer John Stewart John Stone Saml. Stone Stephen Terry William Terry David Walker Jno. Watkins David Watt George West Rawley White Beverly Willard John Williams Joseph T. Williams William Williams John Willis William Willis John Yates Richard Yates

Capt. Hankin’s List Joseph Akins William Akins Abraham Aron Henry Atkins Henry Atkins Richard Atkins William Atkins John Ball Joseph Ballinger Caleb Brewer Frances Bucknall John Bunkley Jacob Cleveland Thomas Clift William Coggin John Cook William Cook David Dalton James Dalton, Sen. William Day Leonard Delosher James Devine John Devine William Devine Robert Duncan James Durrey George Dyer Arthur Fuller Brit. Fuller Zachariah Fuller William Goodman James Gravely, Junr. Watson Henry Edmund Hodges Jesse Hodges Thomas Hodges Luther Hopper Robert Hopper Harrison Hubbard Caleb Hundley John Jackson Samuel Johnson William Johnson Alexander Lackey James Lynch William McGeehee David McKinney Stephen McMillan Mathew Martin William Mathews William Mayes James Mitchell William Morgan John Mullins William Mullins William Neally William Oliver John Pearson William Pigg Richard Prewitt Hugh Reynolds Joseph Reynolds John Roberts William Roberts Benjamin Sexton George Smith Joseph Standley John Warren John White

Lankford’s List John Ballinger John Barrett, Jr. John Bay, Jr. William Betterton John Brewer James Buckley John Buckley Francis Chumley John Cleaver Stephen Collins Soloman Cross John Dickerson William Doss Abraham Downey Peter Downey Elisha Dyer Charles Farris, Jr. James Farris, Jr. Joseph Farris, Jr. Joseph Farris, Sen. Thomas Farris, Sen. Robert Ferguson James George John George John George Collins Hampton Thomas Hampton John Harness James Harris, Sen. William Harskins James Henderson, Sen. Thomas Henderson Benjamin Hedrick John Keezee Geo. Landsdown Joseph Lankford Franc. Luck James Maybee Henry Mitchell Joseph Moody Daniel Morgan George Morgan Francis Short Joel Short William Sizzer John Stone Joshua Stone Rich. Todd Willm. Todd Meshack Turner Shadrick Turner Abner Vance Matthew Vance Thos. Vaughan, Jr. Thos. Vaughan, Sr. Willm. Vaughan John Whelock R. Williams L.C. Wilkin John Wyatt

Jas. Morton’s List Joseph Austin James Biggers William Bisnell James Bleakley John Bleadley Joshua Cantrell Edward Covington James Cox, Sen. John Cox, Sen. Benj. Crowley Richard Cullom Jesse Duncan James Fulton Archd. Gibson John Gibson Randolph Gibson Samuel W. Gouley James Granly William Hankins Thomas Harget Daniel Johnston Thomas Johnston John Jones James King Adam Lackey John Lackey Thomas Livingston Zachariah McCubbins James McGeehee Walter Matney George Mays Jehu Morton John Morton John Nelson Joshua Nelson William Oakes David Payne Edmd. Payne Mathew Pigg David Rawlings William Read Ignatius Redmond James Richey James Robertson John Robertson Wm. Robertson Matthew Sparks John Stocktone Robert Stocktone Adam Stultz David Watson James Whitesides James Young

Robert Payne’s List Jana. Abbott William Astin, Jun. Henry Baldwin Chas. Barnett Lewis Barton James Brown Sam. Bynum Jno. Cargill Thos. Charlton Jacob Chipman Jno. Chipman Wm. Cornelius Ben Craigg James W. Daniel James Dix John Dix Jno. Dix William Dix William Dix Thomas Dudley Lewis Garrett Richard Gibson Will Gillaspy Richard Gwynne Saml. Harris Jno. Haskins George Hudson George Humphries Jno. Jones William Kennon Benj. Lawless, Jr. Jno. Lawrence David Lay Geo. Lumpkins, Sen. Peter McCaul Jno. McMillion Hugh Mahoon Wm. Muncas Michl. Obarr Luke Pendergrass Thos. Perkins Thos. Pestal Benj. Ratcliff Jno. Ratcliff Wm. Richardson James H. Roberson David Rolls George Southerland William Stubblefield Parmenas Taylor Ben Theasher James Thornton Wm. Travis Geo. Twedell Jacob Whitworth Davd. Worsham Jno. Worsham Bazald Wyer Jno. Wyer William Wynn, Sen. John Wynne Robert Wynne John Yates, Jun. Geo. Yunt

Reuben Pain’s List Absolem Addams Allen Addams Cain Addams John Addams, Jun. John Addams, Sen. Nathan Addams Thomas Addams William Addams Zebulon Brynson Daniel Cofman Samuel Dilerd John Dupays Pryant Easley Josiah Fargeson Moses Freeman Thos. Gee Henry Hall John Hall John Hall Daniel Hankins Thomas Hardy Thomas Hardy, Sen. William Hardy Hugh Henry, Sr. Nathaniel Hughes Aaron Hutchings Charles Hutchings Charles Hutchings Christopher Hutchings Moses Hutchings Benjamin Lankford Francis Lamson Jonas Lawson Daniel Lovell Marcom Loval John McGhee John Martin John May John Mode William Moore John Nuckels Josiah Nuckles Edmund Pain Philemon Pain John Parsons Joseph Parsons Samuel Parsons George Perseye Hezekiah Pigg James Pigg Benjamin Porter Joseph Porter Joseph Pruett Bird Pruitt Levey Pruitt Daniel Ragsdale Frederick Ragsdale Joseph Richards Armstead Shelton John Short William Short Burel Vading Zachariah Waller William Waters Archebel Weatherford Harding Weatherford John Weatherford Joshua Welch John Wilson John Wimbush William Witcher

Charles Kennon’s List James Adams Baker Ayers Moses Ayers William Barker Thomas Beach Jno. Bennett Thomas Bennett Benj. Burgess Edward Burgess Zack Bowles George Carter Jno. Carter William Carter William Cauthern Tunis Cole Charles Collie William Collie Bartholomew Crowder James Daniel John Ditty David Dodson Fortunatus Dodson Geo. Dodson Greenham Dodson Hightower Dodson Jesse Dodson Rolly Dodson Tho. Dodson William Dodson William Durrett Patrick Early Joseph Echols Richard Echols George Eubanks Daniel Everett David Hall John Hall John Hall, Jr. Joseph Hall Joses (?Moses) Hanks Benj. Harrison Jonathan Hill Joseph Hill Thomas Hill Edward Howard

Ezekial Howard Alexander Lee Charles Lewis Howell Lewis John Lewis (Byrd) Robert Lewis William Lewis Ratherick McDaniel John Madden Robert Madden Thomas Madden William Maddon Smallwood Coghill Marlin Peter Martin James Menasco James Sml.wood Owen John Owen Uriah Owen William Owen William Owen, Jr. Michael Ozbrooks John Payne John Payne John Payne Poyndexter Payne Robert Payne William Petty Zack.h Pruitt Phillip Pruitt Samuel Pruitt James Roberts Buckner Russell Jeremiah Simpson John Stamps Isham Tatum William Thomas William Twedel Elijah Walters John Walters Robert Walters Robert Walters, Jun. Thomas Walters Thomas Walters, Jr. William Walters James Watson John Watson Jonathan Weldon Peyton Wood Thomas Wynne

Capt. Jas. Roberts’ List Martin Bailey Wm. Bailey Lemuel Black Thomas Black Samuel Bolling Robert Bolton Thomas Brandon James Brewer James Brewer Thomas Bucknall William Burdeth Samuel Calland Charles Calloway John Campbell Stephen Center John Cock Benjamin Cook James Dillard Benjamin Duncan Samuel Duncan John Durham Joseph Dyer John Ellis Peter Finney William Fitzgerald Michael Gilbert Benjamin Hammmond William Hammond John Hanna William Heard Noble Johnson John Kirby Nathaniel Kirby Adam Lackey Thomas Lackey William Lackey Saml. Langbee Thomas Lawrence Benjamin Leprad Littleberry Mallock John Melton William Peak William Pigg David Ray Payton Smith Robert Smith William Still James Stockley Jeremiah Stone George Taylor Ludwick Tuggle William Turner John Walker William Webb

Refused James Lander

Abraham Shelton’s List Absolem Bransom William Bucknal John Caffey Seth Caldwell Stephen Coleman Alex Donelson John Donelson, Esq. John Donelson, Jun. Charles Dowel William Easley Joseph Farris John Farthing Richard Farthing Tandy Farthing Edmund Fitzgerald Harris Gammon Jonathan Griffeth William Griffith William Griffith, Jr. Holmes Gwinn John Gwinn Daniel Hankins, Esq. John Henry Henry Hix George Holland James M. Hugh John Jones William Jones John Kirby William Lewis Joseph Maples Samuel Martin James Metcalf John Metcalf Joseph Metcalf Joseph Morton, Esq. John Norton Bryan Oneal William Pace Joseph Parsons Richard Parsons William Parsons Reuben Payne, Esq. Richd. Pilson William Purnell John Rigney Jesse Robinson Jesse Rowland Nath. Rowland Symon Rowland Crispin Shelton, Esq. Daniel Shelton John Shelton Phil. Southerland Jas. Semore Swinney John Swinney James Taylor Joseph Terry William Thomas Jeremiah Warsham John Watson John Watson, Jr. Thomas Watson William Watson Nattey Wheat William Widby Major Willis Stephen Yates

Refused Chas. Rigney, Jun. Chas. Rigney, Sen. Jonathan Rigney

Crispin Shelton’s List David Barber John Barber John Barrott Richard Barrott James Bruce Uriah Cammeron Abednego Castiel Thomas Davis John Doss John East Elisha Farris Thomas Farris, Jun. Robert Foster Thomas Gazaway John Greggory Benjamin Gudger James Heneerson, Junr. Joshua Hudson Paul Hudson David Irby Francis Irby James Irby Peter Irby Jesse Keezee Richard Keezee Moreman Lawson Charles Lewis, Jun. Charles, Sen. (Sic) Abraham Motley Avery Mustain Jesse Mustain Thomas Mustain Leonard Pace Lewis Parrott Abraham Payne John Payne Josiah Payne Leonard Payne Thomas Payne William Payne Joseph Roberts George Russ Thomas Shields Abraham Shelton Beverly Shelton Crispin Shelton, Jun. Gabriel Shelton Vincent Shelton William Shelton Young Shelton Edmund Taylor

William Short’s List Samuel Askey Peter James Bailey Thos. Burgess John Cartin Daniel Davis John Gee Henry Hardin Mark Hardin Martin Hardin Wm. Hartin Daniel Lynch (unknown) Perdew Isaac Sartin Page Sartin Sillvanus Stokes Geo. Strother Gabl. Tutt

William Ward’s List Joshua Abston William Baker Reuben Bennett William Bennett John Bobbitt John Bosswell Jeremiah Burnett John Byrd Charles Calloway Benjamin Clements Benjamin Clements James Clements Thomas Colley Shadrick Collier John Collin James Dalton John Dalton Joseph Dalton Randolph Dalton John Ellis William Ellis David Evens Benjamin Foster John Goard Thomas Goard William Goard Richard Halloway John Hargess John Holland Thomas Holland George Keysee John Lawson Benjamin McDowell William McDowell Michael Mullings Benjamin Mullins Thomas Music John Neal Little B. Patterson David Perry Elisha Pruitt Field Robertson John Robertson Thomas Robertson Joseph Smith Ralph Smith William Smith William Spragins Nathan Thurman Charles Walden

John Wilson’s List George Adams Richard Anders John Anglin John Asher John Ashworth, Jr. Bob Baker Thos. Billing John Booth George Brittian Thomas Brown James Brumfield Charles Burton James Burton John Anderson Burton Wm. Burton Sterling Cats Joseph Cook John Davis Thos. Cooper Dickerson Larkin Dix Thos. Drake Charles Duncan John Duncan James Elliott Benj. Fallow Edmund Fallow Thos. Fletcher Julas Gibson James Gossett James Gossett, Sr. Shadrick Gossett Thos. Gossett James Gowing Geo. H. Gwin John Gwin Edmund Hammons David Harris Gosdale Hollis Joseph Irwin Wm. Irwin Charles Lacy David Lacy, Jr. Geo. Lacy John Lacy Richard Lacy John Fuller Lane James Lawles Edward Legg Charles Longmir John McClain Daniel McDaniel (unknown) Mahaney John Marr Nathan Morefield Nehemiah Morton David Owen John Owen William Owen William Owen James Parrott Peter Perkins John Phillips John Prewett John Price Timothy Reagain William Ricketts Francis Ross John Ross Bazela Scott Simon Scott John Shelton William Shelton David Shockley Edward Smith Hezekiah Smith Mathew Sparks Thomas Sparks Levy Stockley John Stone, Jr. John Stone, Sr. Wm. Stublefield Geo. Sutherlin John Sutherlin Joseph Tomling Lewis Tucker Geo. Vincent Moses Vincent Thos. Vicent Elisha Walker Thomas Waroham (?Worsham) Thomas Watson Benj. White Thomas Wilkerson Charles Williams Thos. Williamson Peter Wilson William Wilson Thomas Wright

William Witcher’s List Jesse Atkenson Moses Atkenson Morris Atkinson Henry Atkinson John Barnard Bery Bennett James Bennett Richard Bennett Stephen Bennett Thomas Bennett Wm. Bennett, Sr. Randal Bobit Robert Bomer Jno. Clement Dan’l Collins David Dalton, Jr. John Dalton Robert Dalton Robert Dalton Samuel Dalton Soloman Dalton Thomas Dalton Timothy Dalton Wm. Dalton Jacob Dyer William Dyer Arthur Fearn Richard Fowler Jas. Garrison Abraham Goad Charles Goad Robert Goad Wm. Goad Richard Hammock James Harrison George Henderson John Henslie, Jr. Jno. Henslie, Sen. William Henson James Hill Nathan hill Jno. Hudson Jno. P. Hudson John Hunt, Sen. Jno. Jennings James Johnston Henry Kirby William Lawson James Lidleton Wm. Lovell James Mitchell William Moore Patrick Morrison Brain W. Nowlin James Nowlin Charles Partin Jno. Partin Geo. Peak Jno. Peak Jonathan Phillips Tobias Phillips James Phipps David Polley Christain Pryant Thomas Ramsey, Sr. Thomas Ramsey, Jr. Abraham Razor Paul Razor, Sr. Paul Razor, Sr. Paul Razor, Jr. Robert Sevier Thos. Shockley Elias Smith Wm. Smith Benj. Tarrant William Thompson Simon Toshes Jas. Turley Jno. Turley Daniel Wade Edward Wade, Jr. Edward Wade, Sr. Peyton Wade Isaiah Waldrup Jno. Waldrup, Jr. Jno. Waldrup, Sr. Joseph Walker Sanders Ward David Willis Daniel Witcher Ephraim Witcher James Witcher John Witcher, Jr. John Witcher, Sen. Ruben Witcher William Wright

Last name of next three unknown Geo.– James– Joseph–

The Location of the Massacre of James Boone and Henry Russell

Originally posted at http://www.danielboonetrail.com/historicalsites.php?id=80.

AN EXCERPT FROM THE BOOK ON THE WILDERNESS ROAD  BY THE AUTHOR copyright November 2006 All rights reserved

Lawrence J. Fleenor, Jr. Big Stone Gap, Va.

The site of the 1773 massacre of the son of Daniel Boone and of the son of William Russell – James Boone and Henry Russell – is the subject of a long and continuing controversy in Lee County.  The state historical road side marker commemorating this event was originally placed along side US 58 in Eller’s Gap on Powell Mountain between Pattonsville and Stickleyville.  A rival claimant later developed in western Lee County, and roadside marker was dug up in the middle of the night and replanted near Kaylor.  In recent years a new road side marker was erected by the State in the center of Sticklyville.

Local traditions still abound, especially near the various springs that head up Wallen’s Creek north of Duffield and east of Stickleyville, and down Wallen’s Creek all the way to its mouth.  The following is a review of the murders, and of the evidence on the location of the site.

The Great Warrior’s Path was the most significant of the numerous Indian trails in the eastern United States.  It connected the Northeastern and Midatlantic regions with Kentucky and the region between the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.  Daniel Boone’s name is indelibly stamped upon it, and it is also known by the names The Wilderness Road and the Great Kentucky Road.

There are several variations of this trail in western Scott County and eastern Lee County.  The Hunter’s Trace skirted the southern face of Powell Mountain from Pattonsville to Blackwater, where it crossed Powell Mountain at Hunter’s Gap, and passed on a mile and a half west of the mouth of Wallen’s Creek on Powell River, which it crossed at White Shoals.  Another route crossed Powell Mountain via Kane Gap between Duffield and the head of Wallen’s Creek, which it followed to Stickleyville.  Here one version crossed Wallen’s Ridge to the head of Station Creek, and on to the west to the northern end of the White Shoals ford.  Back at Stickleyville, another variation continued on down Wallen’s Creek for 2 ½ miles to Fannon’s Spring, and crossed Wallen’s Ridge via Slagle’s Gap to the mouth of Station Creek.  The last version continued down Wallen’s Creek and for a mile and a half past its mouth, where it joined the Hunter’s Trace.

In 1773 the western extent of pioneer settlement was Castlewood in Russell Co. and the Blockhouse in Carter’s Valley in Scott County, near Kingsport, Tennessee.  Daniel Boone had decided to move his family from the Yadkin Valley of North Carolina to Kentucky, and had persuaded Capt. William Russell of  Castlewood to do so also.  On September 25, 1773 the Boones and five other families sat out, and upon reaching Wolf Hills at present Abingdon, Daniel dispatched his seventeen year old son, James, and the Mendenhall brothers, John and Richard, to leave the main party and to go to Upper Castlewood to pick up Capt. Russell and his party at Russell’s Fort.  Daniel continued on down the main Wilderness Trail to east of Kingsport, and then on up old US 23 to Duffield.  There is no record of whether he accessed Powell Valley by way of Kane Gap, or of Hunter’s Gap.  Once in Powell Valley the Boone Party joined the party of William Bryan, which contained about forty people.  We know that he camped that night on the northern side of Wallen’s Ridge, which itself is north of Wallen’s Creek.

James followed present US Alt. 58 to Castlewood and found that Russell and his party of about forty pioneers were not ready to leave.  To carry this news to Daniel, Russell’s seventeen year old son, Henry, and James Boone along with Isaac Crabtree, the Mendenhall brothers, and two slaves, Adam and Charles, were dispatched on Oct. 8th ahead of the main Russell party.  Also among the emigrants from the Russell Party were the Hargis brothers – Samuel, Whiteside, William, James, John, Benjamin, and their families.  They left Russell’s Fort with James Boone and his party, which traveled down the Clinch Valley branch of the Wilderness Trail until they regained the main Wilderness Trail just north of Natural Tunnel.

Daniel and his party camped along the Wilderness Trail on the north side of Wallen’s Ridge somewhere in Powell Valley, and waited for the Russell party to catch up.  It was, of course, the party of James Boone that was trying to catch up with Daniel, and not that of Russell.  Somewhere James’ party lost the trail, and night fall caught them somewhere on Wallen’s Creek, three miles east of Daniel’s camp.

James could have lost Daniel’s trail either at Duffield or at Stickleyville, depending whether Daniel had taken the Hunter’s Trace, or the Warrior’s Path over Kane Gap and then on to the head of Station Creek.

It is at this point that the speculation begins.  The Wilderness Trail at this time was just a foot path.  Horses were usually led as pack animals, and not ridden.  The Trail from Kane Gap was a corridor rather than a single path, as it followed a branching network of buffalo trails.  At times of low water the travelers tended to stay on the flat northern bank of Wallen’s Creek, but during muddy and wet times they took the ridge line further to the north of the creek bank.

There are three variations of the Wilderness Trail leaving Stickleyville to the west, and we do not know which versions were being traveled by James, and perhaps Daniel.  All three versions enter Wallen’s Creek Valley via Kane Gap, and proceed down Wallen’s Creek to present Stickleyville.  There is a fork in the trail at this point, with one following present US 58 on across Wallen’s Ridge into the Valley of Station Creek, which runs parallel to Wallen’s Creek, both emptying into Powell’s River.

Another variation of the Wilderness Trail continued on west down Wallen’s Creek to Fannon’s Spring, which is about two and a half miles west of Stickleyville.  Implicit in the circumstances of this story is the fact that the party would have camped by a spring.  The pioneers did not usually drink out of creeks anymore than we do.  Fannon’s Spring lies between the road and the creek, and its flow is so great that it boils in a mushroom shape up out of the ground.  Its fresh cold water attracts fish as it empties into the creek.  It is simply the best spring for miles around.  It was at this point that the trail began its ascent of Wallen’s Ridge on its way to Slagle’s Gap, and joined the trail on Station Creek at its mouth on Powell River.

A third version continued on down Wallen’s Creek to its mouth on Powell River, and crossed to the north side to rejoin the versions of the Wilderness Trail coming west from the ford at the mouth of Station Creek.

The militiaman John Redd, who had gone with Joseph Martin in 1775 to Martin’s Upper Station at Rose Hill by way of the Wallen’s Creek route, stated that “the old Kentucky Trace crossed Walden’s ridge at the head of Walden’s Creek”.  This is the current route of US 58 west of Stickleyville.  It implies that Redd believed that Daniel would have gone this way, but Redd admitted that his first trip to Kentucky was in 1780, some seven years after the massacre, a situation that gave plenty of time for the route of the trail to have changed.

Tradition does say that Daniel Boone changed the route of the trail after James was killed.  In 1884, Col. Auburn Pridemore, CSA, of Jonesville, wrote a treatise entitled “Routes East”, and which now is MS 4.8.12 within the Draper Manuscripts.  A transcription of a portion of this document is as follows:

“I have mentioned that Boone after this (the James Boone massacre) changed his rout, that was told me by Genl. Peter C. Johnston, brother of General Joseph E. Johnston of Confederate memory, he had it from a Mr. Fleener whose father Camped at the top of Walden’s ridge at Stickleyville; when Boone and Gov. Dunsmore’s surveyors located the road, and he gave the Killing of Boone’s Son as the reason for the change of route.  This was told me incidentially as Genl. Johnston (who had a great fund of Indian tales and Border adventures) was relating a very thrilling story of a contest of the elder Fleener with an Indian at the same place.”

The location of the murder of James Boone depends on which version of the Wilderness Trail Daniel was traveling, and which route James took in the process of getting lost.  We know that nightfall of October 8th caught the party of James Boone and Henry Russell still on Wallen’s Creek.

“Wolves” howled all night around the camp of the James Boone party.  The Mendenhall brothers paced up and down all night.  At dawn, a mixed party of Shawnee and Cherokee Indians attacked, and shot James Boone and Henry Russell through the hips so that they could not escape.  They were tortured with knives.  Boone recognized his torturer as Big Jim, a Shawnee who had been a guest at Daniel’s home in the Yadkin.  Boone resisted for a while, but with his hands shredded from fending off the knife, he pleaded with Big Jim to kill him and to put him out of his misery.

Russell was clubbed, and his dead body shot full of arrows.  The Mendenhalls, and Whiteside Hargis were also killed.

It is not clear how Crabtree made his escape, but he returned to the settlements in the east.  Adam hid under a pile of drift wood on the bank of Wallen’s Creek, and witnessed the massacre, and later returned to the settlements where he spread the news.  He and Crabtree were the sources of the information that was written into the dispatches of the Holston Militia that wound up as part of the Draper Manuscripts, which are today’s documentation of this event.  Charles was carried away toward captivity.

The story varies somewhat at this point.  One tradition says that the massacre was discovered by a deserter from Daniel’s party.  Another source says that Capt. William Russell’s party came upon the scene, and dispatched a runner to Daniel.  The party of Daniel Boone returned, and Rebecca, James’s mother, wrapped the bodies of James and Henry up together in a linen sheet, and they were buried in a common grave.  The Boone and Russell parties returned to Castlewood.

The Indians, taking Whiteside Hargis’ wife, John and William Hargis, and John’s son who was named after his Uncle Whiteside, along with the slave Charles, made their way back up Wallen’s Creek to Dry Creek at Stickleyville, and thence to Kentucky, probably by way of Lovelady Gap, and either Olinger Gap or Eola Gap to the head waters of the Cumberland River.  Somewhere along the trail, John Hargis and his wife and daughter made their escape, and settled back in Castlewood.  Young Whiteside was adopted by the Shawnee, and later in life joined Chief Benge in his raids against the settlers in the area of his capture.

The Indians along their way began to argue about the ownership of Charles, and the issue was resolved by his being tomahawked.

These events are documented by the Draper Manuscripts 6 C 14; 6 C 7-20; 6 S 79-83; 11CC 12; 13C 133; which are well collated in the book Indian Raids and Massacres of Southwest Virginia by Luther F. Addington and Emory Hamilton.  The Fannon’s Spring data is contained in an article in the “Powell Valley News” written by J. M. Moseley and published in 1958 or 1959.   Moseley had frequented the Fannon home at Fannon’s Spring a little over a hundred years after the massacre, while the oral traditions were still fresh and widely held.  The Hargis information is obtained from Henrietta Hargis Reynolds’ article in The Heritage of Russell Co. vol II.

The most persuasive information concerning the location of the murders of the James Boone Party is the testimony of Adam, whose story was recorded by militia officers at the time.  Adam said that he hid under a pile of driftwood beside Wallen’s Creek beside the Wilderness Trail.  Wallen’s Creek is too small to build up such a large pile of driftwood much above Fannon’s Spring, so the reputed sites upstream from Stickleyville are impossible.  This is especially true of those sites at the head of Wallen’s Creek, which is so small there that it can be stepped across.

We know that Daniel and James took different trails, as James “got lost”.  Since James was on Wallen’s Creek, and was lost from Daniel’s trail, this means that Daniel had taken either the Station Creek version of the trail, or the Hunter’s Trace.  If the Russell Party was the one that discovered the massacre of the James Boone Party, and since we know from several sources that the massacre occurred on Wallen’s Creek, then it would seem that Russell had known to follow the parties of Daniel and of James down Wallen’s Creek.  It is important to note that at its nearest point, the Hunter’s Trace passes 1 ½ miles to the west of the mouth of Wallen’s Creek.  Therefore Russell in his following of the Boones had known that they were not to have traveled on the Hunter’s Trace.

If one discounts the Fannon’s Spring tradition, and discounts Russell having discovered the massacre, there are only two possibilities for these events to have unfolded.  The first is for Daniel to have camped north of Powell River (which is north of Wallen’s Ridge) somewhere in the Flatwoods or White Shoals area, and for James to have camped near the mouth of Wallen’s Creek.  The Wallen’s Creek Trail and the trail that had come from Station Creek come together at White Shoals.  This would have placed James about three to four miles east of Daniel, and also would have allowed the deserter from the Daniel Party to have backtracked to the east on a different trail from the one he had followed with Daniel.

The other possibility is for Daniel to have camped at the mouth of Station Creek, and James to have camped at Fannon’s Spring.  The distance between these two sites is also about three miles, and would have also allowed the deserter to have taken a different route back east and to have stumbled upon the massacre.

However, if one credits either the Fannon’s Spring tradition of Mosley, or the tradition that Russell discovered the massacre there is only one possibility.  The preponderance of evidence points to Daniel’s having camped at the mouth of Station Creek, and James at Fannon’s Spring.  It is, after all, about fifteen miles from Fannon’s Spring to the mouth of Wallen’s Creek and to the Flatwoods segment of the Wilderness Trail.

The Wallen’s Creek location documented by the Draper Manuscripts excludes the tradition locating the massacre in western Lee County near Kaylor.  Also, the western Lee County site is over a hundred miles from Castlewood, easily twice the distance that the James Boone party could have made in the one day that they travelled.

After burying their dead, the Boone and Russell parties returned to Castlewood.

Revolutionary War-Martin’s Station Fort-Lee County, VA

Originally posted at http://www.danielboonetrail.com/historicalsites.php?id=46.

The Revolutionary War was fought on two fronts; from its beginning in 1775, until the treaty of peace in 1783, it was fought on the western front against the Indians, chiefly by the pioneers of Kentucky and frontiersmen of Virginia, Pennsylvania, and the Carolinas. It was fought in a more conspicuous theatre along the Atlantic seaboard by the colonists against the British regulars.

Curiously enough, almost exactly at the time of the firing of the first gun of the Revolution at Lexington, Massachusetts, the Wilderness Road was connected up into a bridle path, which joined the western Virginia border with Central Kentucky. ?This alone made Kentucky’s settlement possible, at that time, and that settlement, in turn, furnished the necessary base for the conquest of the Northwest by the frontiersmen under George Rogers Clark. The road is significant, therefore, not only in the history of Kentucky, but in that of the Revolutionary War.

Martin’s Station was the feature of man’s providing on the road that was most important in making it a practical way into Kentucky. It was a long, hard road. The road through the wilderness began at the blockhouse, which faced Moccasin Gap, where the Indian country began. It ran its winding course through valleys and along creeks, across the Holston, Clinch, Powell, and Cumberland rivers; over Powell Mountain and Wallen’s Ridge (as difficult as Powell Mountain), down Powell Valley, over Cumberland Gap, through the gorge where the Cumberland River cuts its way through Pine Mountain, and then through the foothills until it reached the plateau of Central Kentucky at Crab Orchard and Berea. Its course had been followed, in a general way, by a few hunters and land lookers in the ten years before 1775, but it was definitely marked to Boonesborough by Boone, when he led the party for Col. Henderson and the Transylvania Company from Long Island to Boonesborough in March and April 1775.

Its whole course, from the time it passed Moccasin Gap, was in a country which the Indians infested. They resisted the invasion by the whites, not only to protect their hunting ground, but at the instigation of the British, who recognized the danger to their hold on the West by the thrust of the Kentuckians into the heart of it.

For the 200 miles of the course of the road through the wilderness, there was neither Indian nor white settlement. There was no base of supplies and no refuge, save only at one spot, and that was Martin’s Station in Powell Valley. That was what made Martin’s services in the establishing of his station along the Wilderness Road so important.

Martin’s Station was located 20 miles eastward of Cumberland Gap. It was the halfway house between Virginia and Kentucky; the lone station midway of the journey through an uninhabited district. Every traveller over the road had the support of Martin’s Station on his mind, and those who made written records of their journeys mention it in a way to indicate the importance attached to it.

The station was located exactly on the Wilderness Road where it crossed a creek, later called Martin’s Creek, in Lee County, Virginia. The present state road between Boone’s Path on the east, a third of a mile away; and Rosehill on the west, half a mile away, passes through the old station grounds.

The cabin stood on a low mound about 70 yards to the east of Martin’s Creek, a stream big enough, as Martin said, “to turn a mill;” and 30 yards from a bold, overflowing spring, both of which were doubtless included within the stockade of the station.

Martin was born near Charlottesville, in Albermarle County, Virginia, in 1740, of an affluent family. From boyhood, he took to Indian adventure, and it is probable that he entered Powell Valley as early as 1761.

In 1769 he was allotted, by Dr. Thomas Walker, 21,000 acres for the first settlement in the valley, and in the endeavor to hold this land, he undertook to found a station there in the spring of 1769. The station was attacked by Indians. As a result, it was abandoned in the fall of the same year.

In January 1775 Martin went back with a party of 16 or 18 men and built a station, which included four or five cabins for the men and a stockade on exactly the old site. Thereafter, the station remained, although, at times, unoccupied throughout the period of the early emigration to Kentucky.

The reestablishment of the station in January 1775 was, perhaps, in anticipation of the organization of the Transylvania Company, which was consummated in March of that year. Whether that is so or not, when Boone (and a little later, Henderson) went to Kentucky with their parties in the spring of 1775, Martin was at his station; and furnished a base for the final journey into Kentucky.

He effectively cooperated with Henderson throughout the existence of the Transylvania Company. Henderson, indeed, seems to have used Martin, the executive and diplomat with the Indians, as his business agent at this outpost; as he did Boone, the hunter and explorer, for leading his expedition into Kentucky.

In 1777 Martin reestablished himself at his old station, where he conducted Indian affairs for a wide district, until he retired as Indian agent in 1789.

Martin’s Station is well-known to students of the Wilderness Road, but Joseph Martin had no Filson to celebrate his feats, as Boone had, and he has been almost forgotten. Professor Stephen B. Weeks, of Johns Hopkins, resurrected him in an accurate biographical sketch, which he read before the first meeting of the American Historical Society. But this, in turn, was buried in a government report.

Martin’s work in connection with Martin’s Station and the emigration to Kentucky constitutes only a small part of the accomplishments, which entitle him to be remembered. He was not only one of the most important men in Indian affairs, but in all public affairs in western Virginia and North Carolina. Until 1789 he was chiefly engaged with Indian business. After that time he was a leader in public affairs, in general, on the southwestern frontier.

In 1777 Gov. Patrick Henry commissioned him agent and superintendent of Indian affairs for the state of Virginia, a position he retained until 1789. Because of his influence in restraining the Cherokees, he, more than anyone else, kept the Indians off the backs of the settlers on the Virginia and Carolina frontiers and left them free to cooperate with the other colonial troops against the British in the South. That made victory at King’s Mountain possible, and that, in turn, assured a few months later, the hemming in and capture of Cornwallis at Yorktown.

Until he was nearly 60, Martin was engaged in all sorts of public affairs in a way that marked him as a leader: Indian agent (not only for Virginia, but also for North Carolina), on peace commissions, on boundary commissions (notable that on the western boundary between North Carolina and Virginia, and that between Virginia and Kentucky); brigadier general on appointment of Gov. Henry Lee, of Virginia, and for many years in the Virginia Legislature.

He gave up participation in public affairs in 1779, in his 60th year, and retired to his estate in Henry County, Virginia, where he died on December 8, 1808, in his 69th year.

Lord Dunmore’s War-Fort Blackmore-Scott County, Virginia

Originally posted at http://www.danielboonetrail.com/historicalsites.php?id=85.

Written by Sally Kelly

The site of Fort Blackmore can be reached from Gate City, Virginia. At the Daniel Boone Wilderness Trail sign in front of the Scott County Courthouse, proceed East (right) on Jackson Street/Rt. 71. After approximately two miles, turn left onto Rt. 72, following signs for the present day community of Fort Blackmore. After about ten miles, you will cross over the Clinch River on a large bridge. Historical Fort Blackmore was on the north bank (far bank), to the left of the bridge. The site is on private property. At the north end of the bridge, on your left, is a monument erected by the DAR which tells about Daniel Boone and his connection with Fort Blackmore. To return to the Daniel Boone Wilderness Trail, turn around and retrace the route.

John Blackmore settled on land at the mouth of Stoney Creek on the Clinch River in 1773. He purchased 518 acres from the Loyal Land Company, and his acreage was surveyed on March 25, 1774 by Captain Daniel Smith, deputy surveyor for Fincastle County. At about the same time, surveys were entered for Isaac Crisman, John Thomas, Dale Carter, and John Blackmore, Jr. John Blackmore came to this area from Fauquier County, Virginia. At this time, Daniel Boone and his family had been living on land owned by David Gass, near Castle’s Woods, some dozen or more miles east; ever since Boone’s son James was killed by Indians as a party of settlers made its attempt to go to Kentucky in October, 1773. Young Boone, on that occasion, was traveling separate from the main party, in company with Henry Russell and others. Russell, son of Captain William Russell, “a Gentleman of Some distinction.” according to Royal Governor Lord Dunmore, was the organizer of that attempt, and Boone was the logician. After the murder, the immigration effort was aborted and some of the settlers returned to the Yadkin, and a few stayed on in the Clinch and Holston settlements.

In the aftermath of the murder of the boys, one of the survivors, one Isaac Crabtree killed an innocent Cherokee at a horse race near what is now Jonesborough, Tennessee. This event, and another brutal slaying by white frontiersmen of the nine members of the Mingo tribe on the Ohio in April of 1774 had stirred the tribes along the frontier into a war-like mood. Those few men taking up land on the Clinch were brave souls for many “families on the river had moved back to safety” according to surveyor Smith. Much of the detail that is known of Fort Blackmore comes from the correspondence of officers of the militia during the following months, in what became known as “Lord Dunmore’s War.”

The commanding officer of the Fincastle County Militia was Colonel William Preston, who resided near what is now Blacksburg, Virginia, on the New River. Officers reporting to him included Captain Russell on the Clinch; Major Arthur Campbell, Fort Shelby – at what is now Bristol; and Captain Daniel Smith, mentioned above. In a letter dated May 24, 1774, Colonel Andrew Lewis, of Augusta County, advised Preston that “Hostilities are actually commenced on the Ohio below Pittsburg.” In a War Council in June at the Lead Mines, near Fort Chiswell on the New River, it was decided to send militia under Colonel William Christian, Augusta County, to aid William Russell; and “at Preston’s instigation, William Russell sent Daniel Boone and Michael Stoner to tell John Floyd and other surveyors to come in from Kentucky. These two left for Kentucky on June 27, 1774.” This mission would first bring the previously obscure Boone’s name to widespread public attention.

It was a tense time among the scattered settlers along the Clinch River. On July 12, Colonel Christian wrote Preston that “four forts [are] erecting in Capt. Russell’s Company; one at Moore’s, four miles below this, another at Blackmore’s 16 Miles above this Place [Castle’s Wood] I am about to station 10 Men at Blackmore’s.” On the 13th, Captain Russell notified Preston “there are four families at John Blackmore’s near the mouth of Stoney Creek, that will never be able to stand it, without a Commd. Of Men, therefore request you, if you think it can be done, to Order them a supply sufficient to enable them to continue the small fortification they have erected.” Thus the fort took the name of the man on whose land it was built.

Captain James Thompson was the first officer put in command of the little fort. Men in the community were quite eager to join Lord Dunmore’s expedition to stop the Indians on the Ohio before they could come into the frontier settlements. Col. Preston had stated, “the plunder of the Country will be valluable. . . . it is said the Shawnese have a great Stock of Horses.” Those in command along the Clinch and Holston had difficulty manning the local forts with many eligible men wishing to go. On August 27, Daniel Boone returned from his mission to Kentucky; and almost immediately begged of Major Campbell to be sent on to Point Pleasant on the Ohio. Lord Dunmore had agreed to meet the forces from back country counties there with men he brought along from Tidewater. Boone set out, but was called back by Captain Russell to help defend the little Clinch River community as officer in command at Moore’s Fort.









On September 21, Captain Thompson went out with those Ohio-bound forces, and Captain David Looney was put in command at Blackmore’s Fort. On September 23 or 24, it was reported that “2 negroes [were] taken prisoner at Blackmore’s Fort, on waters of Clinch River, and a great many horses and cattle were shot down.” Captain Looney was absent, visiting his family on the Holston. Major Campbell wrote Col. Preston on the 29th that “Mr Boon is very diligent at Castle Woods and keeps up good Order. I have reason to believe they have lately been remiss at Blackmores, and the Spys there did not do their duty.” Two days later he wrote “Mr. Boone also informs me that the Indians has been frequently about Blackmores, since the Negroes was taken; And Capt. Looney has so few Men that he cannot venture to go in pursuit of them, having only eleven men.” On the sixth of October Campbell wrote to say that Indians had attacked at Shelby’s Fort without success; and the day after that, he said, was the attack at Fort Blackmore. An alarm of their presence was given by Dale Carter, crying “Murder, Murder!” Ensign John Anderson and John Carter ran out of the fort to help, but Dale Carter was killed and scalped; and the slaves were taken. After this, the people of the area were feeling that they needed a commander who lived on the Clinch. October 13, Captain Smith wrote Col. Preston that he had been shown a paper signed by inhabitants requesting the appointment of Daniel Boone to be Captain and take charge of the Clinch forts. Smith endorsed this request and stated “I do not know of any Objection that could be made to his character which would make you think him an improper person for that office.” Preston immediately promoted him.

Boone treasured his commission and carried it with him always until he was promoted again during the Revolution. Meanwhile, information was beginning to be received in these frontier parts that a battle had been fought at Point Pleasant on the Ohio between the forces of Colonel Andrews and the Indian tribes on October 10. Those forces met up with the Indians before they could join up with Lord Dunmore’s men, and fought a very successful engagement. Shortly thereafter, Dunmore negotiated a peace agreement ending the hostilities at Camp Charlotte. Some portion of the Shawnee nation agreed to give up it hunting rights in Kentucky if settlers would remain below the Ohio River. Local militias were disbanded, and November 21, Daniel Boone was dismissed from his duties. The Cherokee now were the only force with which to be reckoned for the settlement of Kentucky.

Again, Daniel Boone would support a prominent man in a Kentucky settlement venture. Judge Richard Henderson of North Carolina, in late 1774, negotiated with Cherokee chiefs to purchase a large plot on land in Kentucky, irregardless that he could not do so legally; and that the Cherokee had no real claim to the land they sold to him either. He engaged Boone to go among the Cherokee during late 1774 to encourage them to meet at Sycamore Shoals on the Watauga in March, 1775, for the formal agreement and transfer of the goods that would pay for the purchase. Boone returned to the Clinch in early February and gathered some twenty men there to help him blaze the path through Cumberland Gap to the land Henderson wanted. Not all are known, they included Michael Stoner, David Gass, William Bush, and William Hays. It is not unlikely that this group included some of the men from the Fort Blackmore area. Squire Boone brought others from North Carolina and the combined band of trail blazers set out from John Anderson’s Blockhouse, on the North Fork of Holston, on March 10. Boone left the new Kentucky settlement, named Boonesborough in his honor, on June 13, 1775, enroute once more for the Clinch. “Boone set off for his family.” Henderson wrote in his journal. When Daniel arrived there, he found Rebecca about to give birth. In late July, she gave birth to a son, William, who did not survive.

In mid August, Boone and family, and a party of some 50 immigrants set off for Kentucky. Probably some of them were men from the Fort Blackmore area; and the party would certainly have passed the fort, perhaps stopping overnight, in their westward journey. This ends Boone’s association with Fort Blackmore. But the fort continued as a place of refuge for many more years. 1775 was a relatively peaceful year east of Cumberland Gap, but hostilities with the Cherokee came again in 1776. Warriors who did not agree with the chiefs who treated with Richard Henderson, led by one Dragging Canoe, began attacks along the frontier. And there were many Indian attacks in Kentucky that caused large numbers of immigrants to flee back over the Cumberlands to the Clinch, Holston, and Watauga settlements. One such Kentuckian, William Hickman, arrived at Fort Blackmore on the Clinch, where he found other refugees “sporting, dancing, and drinking whiskey in an attempt to forget their fears.” “Things could get pretty rancid.” he said, “after a long period of confinement in a row or two of smoky cabins, among dirty women and men with greased hunting shirts.” In June, two men were killed at the fort. And in September one Jennings and his slave met death at the hands of Indians.

Other forts had been erected along the Powell River, west towards Cumberland Gap, during 1775, including Priests, Mumps, and Martin’s. Col. Joseph Martin’s station was erected in January of that year, and he noted in his journal the stopover of the Henderson party of Kentucky settlers about the first of April. Col. Martin left in May to visit at his home in Virginia. Soon the people from Mump’s and Priest’s were driven out. When there were no more than ten left alive at Martin’s, those men fled to Fort Blackmore, where they found most of the people from the Mump’s and Priest’s forts. In July, 1776, Cherokees in force attacked at the fort at Sycamore Shoals on the Watuaga, and battled local militia at the Battle of Long Island Flats, near present Kingsport, Tennessee. About the same time, one Ambrose Fletcher, living near Fort Blackmore, had his wife and children killed and scalped. Colonel William Christian was again called upon by Col. Preston, this time to put down the Cherokee uprising. Jonathan Jennings of Fort Blackmore, and father of the Jennings who was killed, mentioned above, accompanied that expedition to the Cherokee towns on the Middle Tennessee River. After that, mention of Fort Blackmore in the known historical record becomes scanty.

There is one famous story, dating from 1777, that may or may not be true. Men in the fort heard a turkey gobbling. They wanted to go out hunting, but were prevented by a knowledgeable backwoodsman, one Matthew Gray. He convinced them that they were hearing Indians. He directed the men to create a distraction on the bank of the river, while he snuck across the Clinch. He was able to get where he could see the Indian warrior perched in a tree, making the turkey noises. Mr. Gray dispatched the “turkey” and fled back into the fort with the others. In 1779, John Blackmore and his family left the area to travel with the Donelson party, traveling by flatboat, to settle in middle Tennessee. Donelson mentions meeting up with the Blackmore group at the mouth of Clinch where it joins the Holston, so John Blackmore’s band must have gone down the Clinch by flatboat. Perhaps not all Blackmores left the Clinch – or possibly some came back – for they are mentioned again in April, 1790 in the journal of Methodist Bishop John Asbury. “We rode down to Blackmore’s Station, here the people have been forted on the north side of Clinch. Poor Blackmore had had a son and daughter killed by the Indians. They are of the opinion here that the Cherokees were the authors of this mischief.” Asbury goes on to say he had heard of two families being killed and of one woman being taken prisoner, but retaken by neighbors A few days later, the Bishop traveled on, noting that he “Crossed the Clinch about two miles below the fort. In passing along I saw the precipice from which Blackmore’s unhappy son leaped into the river after receiving the stroke of the tomahawk in his head . . . this happened on the 6th of April 1789.” Indian attacks on settlers along the Clinch, Holston, and Watuaga Rivers did not cease until after 1794, when a half breed, Benge, who had led many of the forays, was killed near what is now Big Stone Gap. Benge committed his last crimes near what is now Mendota, Virginia, on the North Fork of the Holston. He fled, with two captive women, over the Clinch Mountain, Copper Ridge, and, finally, High Knob Mountain before being caught up with.

This route probably took him very near Fort Blackmore. And so, it was right in the middle of Indian unrest from its beginning to its end. Just exactly when it was abandoned as a fort is not known. The land owner believes he is able to point out where the fort stood; but, for the most part, it has disappeared from sight. Its little cemetery is still findable, below the current highway bridge over the river, and to its right, near the bank of the river. Scott Countians who care for old cemeteries keep it cleaned and accessible. Many of its graves are unmarked.

Roberts on the 1850 Federal Census for Lee County, Virginia

This is the 1850 Federal Census for Lee County, Virginia

Year: 1850   State: Virginia   County: Lee   Sheet No: 319B

Reel No: M423-955   Division: District 31   Page No: 35

Enumerated on: August 1st, 1850 by: Stephen Crockett

Transcribed by Ellen Finley-Johnson for USGenWeb,

LINE | Dwell Famil | Firstname       Lastname         | Age    S C | Occupation         Real V | Birthplace   | M(other) S(on) R(oomer) D(aughter) | SNDX | Remarks

33 |   225   238 | Wallen          Joseph           |     22 M W | Farmer                    | TN           |         | J210 |

34 |   225   238 | Wallen          Susan            |     24 F W |                           | VA           |     R   | S250 |

35 |   225   238 | Wallen          Ruth             |      2 F W |                           | VA           |         | R300 |

36 |   226   239 | Wallen          George           |     42 M W | Farmer                    | TN           |     R   | G620 |

37 |   226   239 | Wallen          Elizabeth        |     43 F W |                           | VA           |     R   | E421 |

38 |   227   240 | Roberts         Margaret         |     45 F W |                           | VA           |     R   | M626 |

39 |   227   240 | Roberts         Jesse            |     26 M W | Farmer                 75 | VA           |         | J200 |

40 |   227   240 | Roberts         Susan            |     24 F W |                           | VA           |     R   | S250 |

41 |   227   240 | Roberts         Lucy             |     22 F W |                           | VA           |     R   | L200 |

42 |   227   240 | Roberts         Elizabeth        |     20 F W |                           | VA           |     R   | E421 |

1 |   232   245 | Roberts         Margaret         |     15 F W |                           | VA           |         | M626 |

2 |   232   245 | Roberts         James            |     10 M W |                           | VA           |         | J520 |

3 |   232   245 | Roberts         Oma              |      8 F W |                           | VA           |         | O500 |

4 |   232   245 | Roberts         John             |      7 M W |                           | VA           |         | J500 |

5 |   232   245 | Roberts         William          |      6 M W |                           | VA           |         | W450 |

6 |   232   245 | Roberts         Matilda          |      3 F W |                           | VA           |         | M343 |

7 |   232   245 | Roberts         John             |     10 M M |                           | VA           |         | J500 |

8 |   232   245 | Roberts         Mahala           |     18 F W |                           | VA           |         | M400 |

9 |   233   246 | Willis          William          |     48 M W | Farmer                400 | TN           |     R   | W450 |

10 |   233   246 | Willis          Elizabeth        |     44 F W |                           | DO           |     R   | E421 |

11 |   233   246 | Willis          Mary             |     23 F W |                           | VA           |     R   | M600 |

12 |   233   246 | Willis          James            |     21 M W |                           | DO           |         | J520 |

13 |   233   246 | Willis          Sarah            |     18 F W |                           | VA           |         | S600 |

14 |   233   246 | Willis          Elizabeth        |     16 F W |                           | VA           |         | E421 |

15 |   233   246 | Willis          Susan            |     14 F W |                           | VA           |         | S250 |

16 |   233   246 | Willis          David            |     12 M W |                           | VA           |         | D130 |

17 |   233   246 | Willis          Lucinda          |     10 F W |                           | DO           |         | L253 |

18 |   233   246 | Willis          Ceem             |      8 M W |                           | DO           |         | C500 |

19 |   233   246 | Willis          Thomas           |      6 M W |                           | DO           |         | T520 |

20 |   233   246 | Willis          William          |      4 M W |                           | DO           |         | W450 |

21 |   233   246 | Willis          Hudson           |      3 M W |                           | DO           |         | H325 |

22 |   233   246 | Willis          Luena            |      1 F W |                           | DO           |         | L500 |

33 |   236   249 | Willis          Joseph           |     30 M W | Farmer                350 | VA           |     R   | J210 |

34 |   236   249 | Willis          Matilda          |     25 F W |                           | VA           |     R   | M343 |

35 |   236   249 | Willis          Elizabeth        |      7 F W |                           | VA           |         | E421 |

36 |   236   249 | Willis          Sarah            |      5 F W |                           | VA           |         | S600 |

37 |   236   249 | Willis          Mary             |      3 F W |                           | VA           |         | M600 |

38 |   236   249 | Willis          Alcey            |      2 F W |                           | VA           |         | A420 |

Roberts on the 1830 Lee County Federal Census

Roberts, John  0110010000000-3101100000000     000000-000000     000000-000000   00000  0000    317 19
(1 Free White Males 5-10, 1 Free White Males 10-15, 1 Free White Males 30-40, 3 Free White Females 0-5, 1 Free White Females 5-10, 1 Free White Females 20-30, 1 Free White Females 30-40)
Mom & Dad, 30-40 years old, born @1790-1800
Kids: 2 boys, 5 girls

Roberts, John  1300010000000-1000100000000     000000-000000     000000-000000   00000  0000    318  7
(1 Free White Males 0-5, 3 Free White Males 5-10, 1 Free White Males 30-40, 1 Free White Females 0-5, 1 Free White Females 20-30)
Mom, 20-30 years old, born @1800-1810, & Dad, 30-40 years old, born @@1790-1800
Kids: 4 boys, 1 girl


Roberts, Aron  0130010000000-1100010000000     000000-000000     000000-000000   00000  0000    317 14
Roberts, Emanuel  2000100000000-0000100000000     000000-000000     000000-000000   00000  0000    318  9
Roberts, Lewis  1100100000000-1210100000000     000000-000000     000000-000000   00000  0000    317 15
Roberts, Margrett  1100000000000-1000100000000     000000-000000     000000-000000   00000  0000    318  6
Roberts, Nancy  0100000000000-1120001000000     000000-000000     000000-000000   00000  0000    318 26
Roberts, Philip  2000001000000-1202010000000     000000-000000     000000-000000   00000  0000    318 11
Roberts, Rachel  1000000000000-1100100000000     000000-000000     000000-000000   00000  0000    318  5
Roberts, Thomas  1110010000000-0110010000000     000000-000000     000000-000000   00000  0000    318  8

Names found in the 1810 Lee County Personal Property Tax List.

These are in alphabetical order and not in the order enumerated.  You will have to consult original or microfilm copies of these lists for more information. Spellings are as they appeared.

A-F                       G-M                       N-Z

Abshear, John             George, William           Naper, Robert

Adams, Elisha             Gibbs, James              Napier, Edmond

Adams, Peter              Gibbs, Michael            Napier, Edmund Jr

Allen , William           Gibbs, William            Napier, Patrick

Allen, James              Gibson, George Jr         Neille, Daniel

Allen, John               Gibson, George Sr         Neille, Jeremiah

Alsup, William            Gibson, Matthew           Neille, William

Anglin, Abner             Gibson, Robert            Nelson, Joshua

Anglin, John Jr           Gibson, Zacheriah         Nethercut, William

Anglin, John Sr           Gilbert, James            Nichols, William Sr

Applegate, Hezekiah Jr    Gilbert, Joseph           Noe, Aquila

Applegate, Hezekiah Sr    Gilbert, Nancy            Noe, Charles

Ash, Daniel               Gilbert, Thomas           Noe, David

Ashinhurst, John          Giles, John               Noe, james

Averhart, Charles         Gillam, Richard           Noe, John Sr

Bailey, James             Gillam, William           Noe, Randolph

Bailey, William           Gilly, Francis            Noe, Samuel

Baldwin, Nicholas         Gilly, John               Nottingham, James

Ball, George              Goff, Felix               Nowlin, Stephen

Ball, Mary                Goff, George              Nowlin, Thomas

Ball, Moses               Goff, Thomas              Osburn, Edmund

Ballinger, John           Graham, William           Osburn, Elias

Barby, Mary               Graybeel, Jacob           Osburn, John

Barnett, Abner            Grey, Jackson             Owens, Phebe

Barnett, James            Grey, James               Owens, Robert

Barnett, Joshua           Grey, Mary                Owens, Washington

Beatty, Edward            Grey, William             Owins, John

Beatty, Martin            Greybeel, John            Page, John

Beatty, Patrick           Griffen, Israel           Page, Peter

Beatty, Richard           Griffin, John             Parker, John

Benham, Mary              Griffin, Stephen          Parrott, Mouring

Bennett, Levi             Grimes, William           Parsons, John

Bevers, Sampson           Grimmet, William          Parsons, Samuel

Bishop, Abner             Guttery, Hugh             Paulk, Jacob

Bishop, Elijah            Guttery, John             Payne, James

Bishop, John Jr           Guttery, Milam            Payne, John

Bishop, Peter             Gwynn, James              Peek, George

Bishop, Thomas            Hale, Benjamin            Peery, Jacob

Blakemore, James          Hale, John                Pennington, Edward

Blakemore, Joseph         Hale, Richard             Pennington, Micajah

Blakemore, Thomas         Hall, Amy                 Pennington, Micajah Jr

Blanton, George           Hall, David               Pew, Joseph

Blanton, John             Hall, Jacob               Pew, William

Blare, Elsie              Hall, John                Pillion, John

Bledsoe, Abram            Hall, Thomas              Plank, Christian

Bledsoe, Thomas           Halpane, John             Porter, Thomas

Blessing, Henry           Hamilton, Thomas          Poteet, William

Blevins, James            Hamlin, Champ             Powell, William

Bluebaugh, Jacob          Hamlin, Charles           Powers, Jesse

Boggs, Eli                Hamlin, Henry             Preston, John

Boggs, Hugh               Hamlin, John              Prigmore, Theodorus

Boggs, James              Hamlin, Paschal           Provo, James

Boggs, John               Hampton, John             Qualls, David

Boucher, Robert           Hampton, Thomas           Randals, Daniel

Bowins, Reuben            Hampton, Wade             Randolph, Willoughby

Bowlin, Michael           Hampton, William          Rap, Daniel

Bowlin, William           Hardister, Thomas         Razor, Frederick

Bowyer, Samuel            Hardy, Thomas             Razor, Michal

Bowzer, George            Hardy, William            Razor, William

Breeding, Jeremiah        Harmon, Peter             Redmond, George

Brianu, William           Harris, James             Reilly, Edward

Brittain, James           Harris, Matthew           Rice, Holiman

Brittain, William         Harris, William           Ritter, John

Broadrick, William        Hatfield, Abner           Roberts, William Jr

Brown , Thomas            Hatfield, George          Roberts, William Sr

Brown, Leeroi             Hatfield, Lynch           Robertson, Absalom

Brown, Michal             Hays, William             Robertson, John

Brown, William            Hayslip, Henry            Robertson, Warren

Brown, William            Hayslip, Joel             Robinett, James

Bruner, John              Hayslip, Robert           Rodgers, James

Bunch, Elijah             Head, George              Rodgers, Thomas

Burchett, Burrell         Head, Joseph              Rollen, George

Burchett, John            Helton, John              Roller, Gasper

Burgin, Isaac             Hemphill, Joseph          Roller, Jacob

Burgin, James             Hicks, James              Roller, John

Burgin, John              Hicks, Jane               Root, John

Burke, David              Hicks, John               Rose, George

Burke, James              Hignight, James           Ross, David

Burns, Dennis             Hill, James               Rowland, Doudle

Buttern, William          Hix, Samuel               Rowland, Matthew

Calaham, John             Hobbs, Absalom            Rowland, Michal

Calypool, John            Hogan, William            Russell, David

Campbell, James           Hoover, Jacob             Russell, James

Campbell, James Sr        Hoover, John              Russell, John Jr

Campbell, John            Hoston, Joel              Russell, John Sr

Campbell, Matthew         Howard, John              Russell, William

Cannon, James             Howard, Samuel            Sage, Sampson

Carns, John               Howe, William             Sampson, Charles

Carrol, Augustus          Howell, Berry             Sampson, Joseph

Carrol, James             Howpt, Anthony            Sayers, William

Carter, Charles           Howpt, Henry              Scott, Isaac

Casebolt, John            Howpt, Valentine          Scott, Nimrod

Casebolt, Thomas          Hubbard, Isham            Scott, Samuel

Caudle, David             Hubbard, Joel             Scott, Thomas

Chadwell, David Jr        Hudnell, Richard          Shamlin, James

Chadwell, David Sr        Huff, Charles             Shamlin, William

Chadwell, John            Huff, James               Sharp, Benjamin

Chadwell, William         Huff, William Sr          Sharp, Debo

Chapman, John             Hughes, Oliver            Sharp, James

Chrisman, Gabriel         Hunley, James             Shelton, Jeremiah

Chrisman, Nimrod          Hunley, Thomas            Shepherd, James

Christy, Samuel           Husk, Jesse               Shepherd, Sampson

Chuk, William             Huston, William           Shepherd, Thomas Sr

Clack (or Clark?), John   Hutchinson, Alexander     Shepherd, William

Clark, Jesse              Hyden, James              Shepperd, Thomas

Clarke, Francis           Hyden, James              Short, David

Clarke, Robert            Hyden, John               Shuah, George

Clarkson, Thomas          Hyden, William            Shumate, Mark

Claypool, David           Hyden, William            Simms, Robert Jr

Cloud, John               Hynes, Matthias           Sims, James

Coger, Joseph             Ingrum, Job               Sims, Micajah

Coldiron, Henry           Ingrum, Silas             Sims, Roberts

Cole, Adam                Ingrum, Thomas            Sims, William

Cole, Matthew             Irby, Francis             Sisk, Daniel

Collier, Aron             Isaac, Caleb              Skidmore, Henry

Collier, Randolph         Ison, Gideon              Skidmore, John Jr

Collier, Shadrach         Jane, James               Skidmore, John Sr

Collins, Absalom          Jane, Stephen             Skidmore, Thomas

Collins, Daniel           Jenkins, Robert           Sloan, Reuben

Collins, James            Joans, Alexander          Sloan, Thomas

Collins, John             Johnson, John             Smith, Absalom

Collins, Martin           Jones, Abram              Smith, Benjamin

Collins, Mitchel          Jones, James              Smith, David

Collins, Solomon          Jones, Jonathan           Smith, David

Collinsworth, Edmond      Jones, Samuel             Smith, Edward

Comer, Martin             Jones, Stephen            Smith, George

Connolly, Charles         Jones, Thomas             Smith, John

Connor, James             Jones, William            Smith, Mial

Coop, John                Jones, Wylie              Smith, Reddin

Cooper, John              Kelly, John               Smith, Theophilus

Cooper, Jonathan          Kennedy, Stephen          Smith, William

Cooper, Samuel            Kincaid, James            Smith, William

Cooper, William           King, James               Smith, William

Corry ?, James            King, Joel                Snider, Barnett

Covy, Noble               Kirk, Willie              Souders, Abram

Cowan, Richard            Knotts, Thomas            Souders, Elizabeth

Cox, John                 Lambert, John             Souders, Henry

Cox, William              Lane, Michal              Souders, Jonathan

Crabtree, Jacob           Latham, John              Souders, Peter

Crabtree, Job             Lawrence, Charles         Spears, Joshua

Crabtree, John            Lawrence, Richard         Spears, Robert

Craig, Hiram              Lawson, David             Spencer, Aron

Craig, William (con.)     Lawson, Hutson            Spencer, John Sr

Creech, Elijah            Lawson, John              Spencer, Joseph

Creech, Elisha            Lawson, Moorman           Spencer, Moses

Creech, John              Lawson, Stokely           Spencer, William

Creech, Jonathan          Lawson, Thomas            Spencer, William

Creech, Zadock            Leddington, Thomas        Spilman, Samuel

Daniel, John              Lewis, John               Spurlock, Drury

Daniel, William           Lewis, Thomas             Spurlock, Jesse

Davis, Benjamin           Lewis, William            Standerford, William

Davis, David              Likings, Peter            Stanly, John

Davis, Deale              Litteral, Abigal          Stephens, David

Davis, John               Litteral, John            Stephens, Gilbert

Davis, John               Litteral, Samuel          Stephens, Solomon

Dawson, Nimrod            Little, Eb.               Stuart, David

Dean, Laban               Locke, Abram              Stuart, James

Deaton, John              Locke, Samuel             Stuart, Thomas

Denham, Philip            Louder, William           Sullivan, Owen

Dickinson, Daniel         Lucus, Raspberry          Summers, Daniel

Dixon, John               Macfarlane, George        Sutton, Smith

Dizzern, Elisha           Macfarlane, John S.       Tackett, Philip

Dizzern, Francis          Maddin, George            Tausser, Henry

Dizzern, Frederick        Mahon, Joseph             Taylor, John

Dottson, Edward           Mainos, Jacob             Tharp, William

Dottson, Simon            Mark, John                Thomas, Joseph

Dougherty, John           Mark, samuel              Thompson, Electius

Dougherty, Joseph         Markham, Reuben           Thompson, Henry

Dougherty, Nathaniel      Markham, Samuel           Thompson, Jonathan

Dougherty, William        Marshal, David            Thompson, Joshua

Duff, James               Marshal, Hugh             Thompson, Stephen

Duff, Robert              Marshall, Thomas          Thompson, William

Duff, Robert L.           Martin, Allen             Tipton, Jonathan

Dunlop, John              Martin, Hatfield          Tittle, David

Dyches, James             Martin, John              Todd, Elizabeth

Earls, Charles            Martin, John Sr           Towell, John

Edwards, Jesse            Matlock, William          Townsend, George

Edwards, John             Mattock, John             Travis, George

Eli, George               Mattock, John Sr          Travis, James

Eli, Isaac                McBriant, Joseph          Tritt, Elizabeth

Eli, John                 McCaleb, Isaac            Trotter , Isaac

Eli, Joseph               McCelland, Hugh           Trotter, James Jr

Eli, Robert               McCord, Benjamin S ?      Trotter, James Sr

Eli, William Jr           McCully, Hugh             Trotter, John

Eller, George Jr          McCully, Reuben           Turner, James

Eller, George Sr          McDewell, John            Turner, Jonas

Eller, John (con)         McDowell, Edward          Turner, Joseph

Ely, David                McDowell, John            Tyre, David

England, John             McDowell, Luke            Vernon, John

Ewing, Joshua             McDowell, Michal          Waddle, David

Ewing, nathaniel          McGee, John               Waddle, James

Ewing, Samuel             McGee, Samuel             Waddle, Thomas

Ewing, William            McGuire, Francis          Walker, Robert

Failing, Thomas           Mcheon, John              Wallen, Elisha

Farlor, Farost            McInnelly, John           Wallen, James

Farlor, Francis           McKinney, John Sr         Wallen, James Jr

Farlor, William           McKinney, Michal          Wallen, John Jr

Ferguson, Elisha          McKinny, Abram            Wallen, John Sr

Ferguson, John            McKinny, David            Wallen, Jospeh

Ferguson, Obadia          McKinny, James            Warner, John

Files, Manly              McKinny, John Jr          Warren, Aron

Flanery, James            McKinny, Shadrack         Warren, Thomas

Flanery, John             McMillan, Andrew          Watson, Hezekiah

Flanery, John Jr          McQuown, Hugh (Jr?)       Watson, Thomas

Flanery, Thomas           McSpadden, Archibald      Watson, William

Fleming, Robert           Miles,  James             Waughtel, Frederick

Fletcher, David           Miles, David Sr           Weaver, William

Fletcher, Drury           Miles, Wright             Wells, Jacob

Fletcher, George          Miller, Henry             Wells, Jeremiah

Fletcher, James           Miller, Joseph            Wells, Thomas

Fletcher, James Jr        Miller, William           Wells, Zachariah Sr

Fletcher, Jesse           Minx, Peter               Welsh, Joseph

Flin, George              Miracle, Abram            West, Charles

Flin, Jacob               Miracle, Frederick        Whaley, Hercules

Flin, Martin              Miracle, John             Wicker, Evan

Fortnu, Richard           Moore, David              Wicker, Pleasant

France, William           Moore, David              Wilcox, George

Frigate, James            Moore, George W.          Wilcox, Sarah

Fritz, John               Moore, Shadrack           Williams, Isaac

Fukle, Absalom            Morgan, Zacharia          Williams, John

Fulkerson, Abram          Morriss, Joseph           Williams, Jospeh

Fulkerson, Frederic       Muncy, Francis            Willis, John

Fulkerson, Isaac          Muncy, James              Wilson, Catharine

Fulkerson, John           Muncy, Peter              Wilson, William

Fulkerson, Peter          Muncy, Samuel             Wissman , Philip

Muran, Samuel             Wissman, Michal

Wolfenberger, Jacob

Wolfinberger, Joseph

Wood, Richard

Woodard, James

Woodard, Jesse

Woodard, John

Wylie, James

Wylie, William

Wynn, Elkanah

Yates, Benjamin

Yates, Joshua

Yates, William

Yeary, Henry

Yeary, William

Young, James

Young, John

Young, William

Roberts on the 1795 Lee County, Virginia, Personal Property List

1795 Lee County, Virginia Personal Property Tax List

Surname Given Name White Males 16+ Blacks 12-16 Black Males 16+ Horses, Mares, Colts & Mules
Roberts George 1 1
Roberts William 1(William Jr.?) 3

Blackwater, Virginia

by W. Dale Carter, copyright 2002, Kingsport, TN

The small community of Blackwater has been mostly unnoticed by historians of southwest Virginia. It was given its name of Blackwater by the first hunters that ventured into the area perhaps as early as the 1750s. At that period of time, a spring or stream that contained minerals such as common table salt was referred to as Blackwater [Etymology: “The history of linguistic form”] The term brackish water derives from the Low Saxon word brackwater, which is the water of a brack. A brack is a small lake created when a storm tide breaks a dike and floods land behind the dike.  Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Plattdüütsch, Nedderdüütsch or Neddersassisch) is any of a variety of Low German dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. It also includes Plautdietsch, which is spoken by Mennonites in North America. Blackwater is located at the crossroads of the old trading route from the Cumberland River to the Cherokee nation in East Tennessee and the old hunters trace from the New River to Kentucky. Today, Blackwater is an isolated community as to commerce and transportation, but it was not so isolated in the mid eighteenth century due to the large Buffalo lick. Over the eons of time, herds of buffalo had carved out trails radiating out from the lick to the grazing meadows in Powell Valley, Rye Cove, and south to the Clinch River valley. Herd animals would travel great distances to a salt lick to replenish their need for salt, an essential mineral in their diet. A salt lick is a site where the soil and rocks contain a natural deposit of salt and was called a lick because the animals would lick the soil or rocks to a depth of several feet to satisfy their need for this essential element.

A salt lick was the favorite hunting site of the Indians and long hunters. The hunters would position themselves at strategic points along the trails the animals traveled to the lick and make their kill. Numerous historical records of the frontier give accounts of the well known licks such as the Bledsoe lick in Sumner County Tennessee, the Blue lick in central Kentucky and the French lick in southern Indiana, but little is known about the large lick at Blackwater. Perhaps this is because the Blackwater lick was discovered at least a quarter of a century before the licks in Sumner County in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Indiana and by the time of their discovery the pressure of hunting at the Blackwater lick had depleted the size of the herd animals to near extinction; however, the trails carved out by buffalo remained and were used by the hunters as the choice route leading from the frontier to Kentucky. The long hunters knew about the lick as early as 1761, and it was a landmark on the old hunters path from the New River to Powell Valley.

Land records tell us much about the route the hunters took to seek game around the large salt lick and the grazing grounds in Lee County. The Hunters path is well defined until it reaches the little salt lick, Duffield, but from this point little is known about the route to Powell Valley; however, the land surveyors made notations on their surveys that give clues as to the route of the path. A land grant to Arthur Campbell [LO 45-325] describes the location of the grant as being at the Hunters Gap in Lee County and on both sides of the Hunters path. This tells us that the Hunters path ran along the south side of Powell Mountain from Duffield to Blackwater and crossed the mountain at Hunters Gap. The path ran down Wallen creek to near it mouth on Powell river where again the land surveys pick up the route of the Hunters path.

Another grant to Arthur Campbell [LO Q-318] is described as being on the south side of the Powell River and on both sides of the Hunters path. This grant is located about one mile west southwest of where Wallen Creek flows into Powell river. The Campbell grant [LO Q-318] is adjoined on the west side by a land grant to Robert Preston [LO 27-57]. The Preston grant is described as lying on both sides of the Hunters path. From this information, we know that the Hunters path ran from near the mouth of Wallen Creek across the area known as the Rob bottoms and crossed the Powell River at White shoals. Again, the surveys tell us that the path ran in a north or northwest direction from White shoals as a grant to Robert Preston [LO 27-41]is described as lying on the west side of trading creek and one of the survey points is described as “white oak south side of the old Kentucky trace on John Ewing line with same”. From this point, the path or trace ran to Martins station but the exact route cannot be proven by land records.

Records show that Elisha Wallin and William Newman hunted around the Blackwater buffalo lick as early as 1761. Wallins Ridge and Newman Ridge were named after them. Other long hunters surely knew about the lick. Evidence of the buffalo trails remains on modern maps by the names of geographic features such as hunters ford, hunters valley, hunters gap and hunters branch. No doubt the long hunters in quest of game followed the herd animal paths from their favorite grazing grounds to the salt licks. There were many small licks in the area used by deer and other small game, but needs of the herd animals would require the mineral deposits of a much larger lick such as the Buffalo Lick at Blackwater.

The importance of the Blackwater lick is clearly pointed out by the claims of the land speculators. As early as 1775, Thomas Osburn had settled on land adjoining the Buffalo lick and obtained a land grant from the Commonwealth of Virginia by virtue of Right of Settlement.  “Washington County Survey Book 1,Page 389 Commissioners Certificate – on the forks of black water a north branch of Clynch River – beginning at the foot of Powells Mountain on the west side of the Buffalow Lick – at the foot of Newman’s ridge on both sides black water joining Powells Mountain, includes improvements, actual settlement made in 1775 – August 22, 1781”.

The name Blackwater appears in land claims as early as 1775, and the name was known far and wide. Claims were filed in the Virginia Land Office and the North Carolina Land Office for land at Blackwater so hunters from North Carolina and Virginia had spread the word about the large buffalo lick at the Blackwater.  From the North Carolina Archives, we find that Walter and Robert King filed an entry with the North Carolina Land Office for 250 acres that was to include an old buffalo lick.  “Recorded in North Carolina Land Office File No 28 Hawkins County records. Walter King & Robert King make entry No 1947 entered 12 Oct 1779,250 acres near the foot of Powell mountain by the name of Black Water: Beginning near the creek at a poplar, white oak, poplar s;150 poles to a stake, then W;280 poles to a stake, then n;150 poles to a stake, to include an old Buffalo Lick, surveyed 16 Sep 1793. Thomas Church assigned his interest in the Wilkins land to William Hord and Hord assigned it to Walter King & Robert King 1 Nov 1792”.

In the meantime, Walter Preston was issued a land grant from Virginia that bordered the Thomas Osborne grant and included the buffalo lick. To further complicate the issue Arthur Campbell also obtained a grant from Virginia that included the buffalo lick, all of the Thomas Osborne grant and much of the Preston grant. Apparently Preston ended up as the legitimate owner as he sold his grant to James White. The heirs of Campbell made an effort to reclaim their Blackwater grant, but I find no record that they were successful.  The Thomas Osborn grant ended up under the ownership of James and Stephen Osborn. A deed recorded in Lee County Deed Book 3, page 189: “Stephen Osborn & Comfort & James Osborn & Mary to William Roberts, 31 Jul 1810, DB 3-189. 400A by survey only the 1/2 of the Buffalo lick excepted for James Osborn the same being the west side of the said lick running through the middle thereof with the conditional line made by John Osborn & Roberts from thence marked around the lick on or near the bank of the same $650”.

This deed shows that James Osborn reserved for himself ½ interest in the salt lick when the Thomas Osborn grant was sold to William Roberts. Apparently the lick site was developed as a salt works as a deed made 29 December 1817 and recorded in Lee County Deed Book 3, page 399, shows that William Roberts and his wife, Catherine sold ¼ part of a tract known as the Blackwater tract, to Jessee G. Rainey.  “Being a part of tract said Roberts purchased of James & Stephen Osburn. Including the lick premises and well, now occupied by said parties together and including 100 acres”.  The deed shows that by the year 1817 a well had been dug at the salt lick site. On 5 June 1818 William Roberts and wife sold 1/8 part including the lick premises and well recorded in Lee County Deed Book 3, page 405, and on 12 May 1818 William Roberts and wife sold ½ interest of the lick tract to Joseph and James McReynolds of Bledsoe County, Tennessee for $3,000. Recorded in Lee County Deed Book 3, page 406. The McReynolds deed shows that something of great potential lay within the boundary of the tract. At that point in time, land in and around Blackwater was selling for $1 to $2.50 per acre. The McReynolds paid $60 per acre.

From this time forward, the land records do not show what happened as to the ownership of the salt lick tract; however, on 19 January 1835, by order of the Lee County court, Jacob V Fulkerson, commissioner of the court, sold one moity of the Blackwater salt lick to Dale Carter of Russell County, Virginia. Carter was a large land owner and land speculator who owned large tracts in the Elk Garden and in present-day Wise County, Virginia.

Why all the interest in the buffalo lick? Most likely these early land speculators had visions of developing the site as a salt works much like the one at Saltville. In fact, a salt works was operated at Blackwater for a period of time.

In conclusion, the first white traders with the Indians and the long hunters used the buffalo lick at Blackwater as a well known land mark to describe the route from the frontier to the hunting grounds in Powell Valley and Kentucky. The buffalo paths from the grazing grounds led to the lick.  Daniel Boone in his aborted journey to Kentucky in 1773 most likely used the hunters path to the Powell river. It was a route well known to him and other hunters. The Boone party consisted of some forty individuals, pack horses and a small herd of cattle. A party this large would have had to follow a well-defined Buffalo trail to keep some order to their journey.

Lee County Order Book 2, page 364 27 Jan 1818; David Burk proposes an alteration in the road leading from the Blackwater salt works up Blackwater to the state line.

Lee County Order Book 2, page 374, 29 Apr 1818: John B Neil, Elisha Rogers; Thomas Roberts; William Wallin and David Lawson view a road from the forks below the Blackwater salt works to John B Neils.

The crippled, would-be highwayman

One day, my grandpas Fred Roberts and Claude Baker and my great uncles Ed and Bascum Roberts were riding over Wallen’s Ridge in their wagon.  As they came around a bend, grandpas Fred and Claude noticed a group of men back in the brush.  One of them came limping out onto the road and said, “As you can see, I’m crippled.”  Obviously, he was hoping to get a ride on the wagon.  Grandpas Roberts and Baker ignored the man, knowing that he was up to no good.  Great uncle Bascum, being a kind hearted soul, if not the brightest one, got out of the wagon to walk beside the man and talk to him.

Knowing that he was up to no good, grandpa Roberts got his shotgun out and quietly handed it over to grandpa Baker.  Grandpa Baker sat on the back of the wagon with the shotgun to make sure that the man and his friends didn’t give Bascum any trouble.  As grandpa Baker told it, “There weren’t no trouble.”

Eventually, the man stopped walking and bid them goodbye.  He didn’t appear to have a limp as he walked back to his friends.

I’ll cut him hip-to-hip

My grandpa, Fred Roberts, was known for many things.  But a sense of humor wasn’t one of them.  As my dad puts it, “He didn’t say much.   But he meant what he said.”

One day great grandpa Elbert’s family were visiting some relatives.  Their cousins were a little mean, and decided it would be fun to throw the Robertses into a nearby river.  After they had thrown grandpa’s brothers and father in, they came to him.

A classic example of a Hawkbill knife.

He immediately pulled out his large hawkbill knife (used for grading tobacco) and told them, “The first man that touches me, I’ll cut him hip-to-hip”.

Needless to say, grandpa did not get thrown in the river that day.

The tanbark wagon


My great uncle Ed Roberts was known for his strength.  One day, he, great uncle Bascum Roberts,  grandpa Fred Roberts and grandpa Claude Baker were at the top of Powell Mountain loading tanbark into a wagon.  When they tried to leave, the rear, right wagon wheel got hung on a root.  Confident of his strength, Ed tried to raise the wagon full of tanbark over the root.  He couldn’t do it.  Grandpa Roberts walked up to the wagon and as if it weren’t anything, lifted the wagon up over the root.