The Battle of Cumberland Gap-1863
The area of the Cumberland Gap was very strategic during the Civil War. It traded hands a few times in various engagements. The 64th Mounted Virginia Infantry, of which Jesse Roberts was a member, fought in the last battle. It was a disaster for the Confederate forces, who surrendered without a fight. The Confederate prisoners were taken to Camp Douglas in Chicago. They probably regretted their decision then. I can find no prisoner of war record for Jesse. So he was probably one of the 100-300 Confederates who escaped through the Union lines. Or he may have joined after this battle.
The September 7–9, 1863 fall of the Cumberland Gap was a victory for Union forces under the command of Ambrose Burnside during his campaign for Knoxville. The bloodless engagement cost the Confederates 2,300 men and control of the Cumberland Gap.
Major General Ambrose Burnside, commander of the Department and Army of the Ohio, began to advance against Knoxville, Tennessee. Burnside left Cincinnati, Ohio in mid-August 1863. The direct route ran through the Confederate-held Cumberland Gap. Burnside had been delayed in earlier attempts to move out against Knoxville and thus chose not to spend the time to force a passage of the gap. Instead he detached one brigade under Colonel John F. DeCourcy to pose a threat to Brigadier General John W. Frazer‘s 2,300 man garrison, while the rest of the army bypassed to the south over 40 miles in rugged mountainous terrain. DeCourcy had previously led a brigade in the 1862 operations against the Cumberland Gap under George W. Morgan.
Despite this, Burnside made a rapid advance on Knoxville. Many of the Confederates in eastern Tennessee had been withdrawn for the upcoming Battle of Chickamauga, leaving only two brigades under General Sam Jones (including Frazer’s). Having successfully occupied Knoxville on September 2, Burnside could now return his attention to the Cumberland Gap.
Frazer and his 2,300-man garrison had little combat experience, yet they had the benefit of a strong natural defense. Frazer’s men supplemented this by digging their own trenches. General Simon B. Buckner had given Frazer orders to hold the gap at all cost, yet when Buckner and all his troops were redeployed, no contingency had been formulated for retreat and therefore Frazer continued following his orders from Buckner to hold the gap. DeCourcy’s brigade threatened the Confederates from the north, but his brigade alone was not enough to force Frazer out of the gap. Burnside dispatched a second brigade under Brigadier General James M. Shackelford. Shackelford approached from the south and, on September 7, asked for Frazer’s surrender. There were still not enough Union troops to convince Frazer to surrender. An ineffectual exchange of artillery followed but that evening Union soldier captured Gap Springs, the Confederate water supply. On September 8 Burnside personally left Knoxville with a brigade under Colonel Samuel A. Gilbertand marched 60 miles in just over a day. Meanwhile both DeCourcy and Shackelford sent messages demanding surrender. Attempting to buy time, Frazer met with the two Union commanders separately, but rejected surrender demands from both.
Around 10:00 a.m. on September 9, Burnside sent a message to Frazer stating he now had a large enough force to carry the gap by storm. The large Union force, little combat experience and low morale (after news of Vicksburg andGettysburg) all factored into Frazer’s decision to surrender. Around 3:00 p.m. Frazer agreed to an unconditional surrender of all the Confederates guarding the Cumberland Gap. Between 100-300 men managed to escape through DeCourcy’s lines after the surrender had taken place, but the rest of the soldiers, arms, 14 pieces of artillery and the strategic location were now in Union control. This was the last major operation against the Cumberland Gap and it would remain in Union hands for the rest of the war.
Department of the Ohio – Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside
- Independent Brigade, IX Corps – Colonel John F. DeCourcy
- 86th Ohio Infantry
- 129th Ohio Infantry
- 22nd Ohio Battery
- 8th Tennessee Cavalry
- 9th Tennessee Cavalry
- 11th Tennessee Cavalry
- 3rd Brigade, 4th Division, XXIII Corps – Brig. Gen. James M. Shackelford
- 9th Michigan Cavalry
- 2nd Ohio Cavalry
- 7th Ohio Cavalry
- 2nd Tennessee Mounted Infantry
- 11th Michigan Battery
- 1st Tennessee Battery
- 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, XXIII Corps – Colonel Samuel A. Gilbert
- 5th Brigade, Army of Tennessee – Brig. Gen. John W. Frazer
- 62nd North Carolina Infantry Regiment – Major B. G. McDowell
- 64th North Carolina Infantry Regiment – Lieutenant Colonel Garrett
- 55th Georgia Infantry Regiment – Major Printup
- 64th Virginia Infantry Regiment – Colonel Slemp
- 1st Tennessee Cavalry Regiment – Colonel Carter
- 29th North Carolina Infantry Regiment Company E.
Thanks Jeff for your work on the Confederate surrender of Cumberland Gap. My great grandfather, John Moore, from Hall County, GA, was in the 55th GA and was one of those inexperienced soldiers in the Gap. He enlisted 12 May 1862, and was sent to Tennessee. He spent the rest of the war at the infamous Camp Douglas where his younger brother died due to the neglect and maltreatment of the Yankees. Your work here helps me better understand his service and the events leading up to his capture. Thanks. I’m copying and pasting and adding this link to his page in my family’s ancestry.com records. Blessings.
Great narrative on the Battle of Cumberland Gap. I have been looking for information on the battle flag that was forwarded by the 64th Virginia Infantry. Would you happen to have any description, ie: was it the state flag or was it an ANV battle flag and if so was there any unit or battle honors listed on the flag.
Thanks for any information.